L’Oreal, the making machine cracks

L’Oreal, the making machine cracks

The global leading beauty cream recruiting and marketing experts. Survey codes and methods of a group that does not tolerate to nearly.

Even the interview river Liliane Bettencourt, the heiress of L’Oreal, in “Paris Match”, in early October, was censored. In recent months, the world’s No. 1 cosmetics removes its internal review of all press articles related to bounce “case”. “The first business,” insists substantially Jean-Paul Agon, CEO. At the headquarters in Clichy, as in the smallest branch in the other side of the world, employees do not have to do violence to follow the instructions, they assimilated. The pressure for results is rooted in the history of this multinational, accustomed for twenty-six years at a double-digit growth in profits (+ 21.4% in first half 2010). Here, self-improvement is the rule. And leadership the cardinal virtue. backstage Survey among these executives “who are worth it.”

The cult of “always more”

Flowing, really? When he was appointed CEO of L’Oreal, in 2006, Jean-Paul Agon was reputed to be less brittle Lindsay Owen-Jones, its predecessor for eighteen years, now president of the group, and is still the subject of a real veneration in the house. To mark its difference, the new boss has stepped up social measures: the fight against stress, charter on diversity, evaluation of managers on personal development criteria . But the profitability requirement, it has not changed. Now, L’Oreal, those are the numbers that dictate the tempo. Hence the ultrasoutenu rhythm, which sometimes puts family life to evil, especially for young mothers (64% of employees are women).

A visit to the headquarters in Clichy, where the phosphorus in consumer products, is enough to be convinced. At nine least, marketers of L’Oreal Paris, Garnier and Maybelline are already busy in their offices. It is frowned upon arriving later. The day then place in a frantic whirlwind burst meetings, lunch break shipped in thirty minutes, security officials forced to dislodge the most zealous after 21 h 30 . “Life at L’Oreal, is a little return student years, summarizes a framework. later we bump together, they dine together, see you on the weekend . “

The consumer division, which accounts for half of sales, is known to be the hardest. “Fought Market, knife negotiations with retailers . it’s war!” Laughs a product manager. “The atmosphere is just as tense luxury division, Lancôme and Biotherm. But the relationships between people are more muted, “says one expert group. And it is even relaxed in the active cosmetic branches (Vichy, La Roche Posay .) and professional products (Kerastase, Redken .). Normal: L’Oreal dominates the market for drugstores and hair salons.

Everywhere, management maintains emulation. At all levels. We must, of course, beat rivals in its sector: Nivea, Schwarzkopf or LVMH (Dior, Guerlain .). But doing better, too, than the other group brands. And, if possible, than other products in its own team. “My boss loved to put under my nose the figures of my colleagues,” says a former product manager. To stand out, young wolves marketers use their expertise as their “expertise.” They speak highly of their good results in the cafeteria, distribute their products to all services in preview . “Market yourself!” They do we advise the HRD. The rumor even says that a director would have let to the year for its brand all the advertising boards on the path taken by Jean-Paul Agon, from his home in Neuilly-sur-Seine to the seat of Clichy history lather with the boss .

A naturelleLa selection pressure is at its peak on the day of the budget or strategic presentations. The most feared? The “prospective” meeting. Twice a year, the 23 owners of international brands exhibiting their launch plans to Jean-Paul Agon. “One month we hump like crazy to wedge all,” says a luxury division of the frame. Make and remake – a L’Oreal principle – slides, check the tables of figures, including the famous “OJ1” – the initials of Owen-Jones – that compares sales advertising investment . Number of careers are made and unmade during the oral exam.

The weakest often end up resigning. Or inherit a job for less. “When my boss found itself in the sights, I understood the meaning of humiliation,” says this former communications service. In recent months, with the crisis, “Darwinism” was further strengthened. “Jean-Paul Agon has declared a so-called combing policy says a” orealien the “seasoned. We were asked to be inflexible with those who underperform. In some countries, an internal study showed that demotivaient colleagues . “

Remuneration gold

The house know however be generous towards those who hold up. In 2009, L’Oreal executives got an average 4.9% increase, enough to fantasize a lot of their colleagues in the CAC 40. “We ask a lot, but in return we give as much confirms Jean- Claude Le Grand, HRD of the consumer division. Fixed, comfortable salaries but in standard French multinationals are added almost three months salary in profit sharing. “Either 9000 euros for a youth group leader paid 40 000 per year,” it calculated to management. “On the incentive, only Dassault competes with us,” says Georges Liarokapis, central delegate CFE-CGC. Seat Clichy and Saint-Ouen, employees also have a concierge worthy of a palace. Gone, however, the lavish receptions, disco fee notes or what happened, seminars in Mauritius, with luxury, fireworks and champagne dinner in a private lagoon. ensures management control.

The talent hunt

Not enough to lower the L’Oreal rating among students, obviously. In the last week of ESCP in Paris, the group’s stand has raised more than 1 000 applications in one day! The seven scouts dispatched to the occasion asked the young detailing their motivations and to engage in the “exegesis” of a product selected at random. All in five minutes flat . “The detection of talent is an obsession with us,” explains Jean-Claude Le Grand. The company invests several million euros each year in company chairs (HEC as the School of Mines), partnerships with 200 universities in the world, marketing contest .

The largest of them, the “L’Oreal Brandstorm” attracted in June more than 6000 students from 270 schools scattered around the globe. The prize for the winning team? A trip to 10 000 and six-month internship. A must for getting a job: 90% of new hires are former interns. These orealiens the budding paid 1,100 euros net per month, three times the standard compensation, are tested on real projects under the command of a young product manager whose scans at the same time, the ability to management.

Only the best students are hired after four to ten interviews! Again, the product is at the heart of the process. “They showed me a hair coloring bottle, I had twenty minutes to present a plan to launch internationally!” Recalls Anna Weste, 29 years already and Marketing Director Europe for makeup L’Oreal Paris . A battery of questions, sometimes surprising ( “And if you were a vegetable?”) Makes sure that the candidate is hardworking, talented and ambitious oral. In short, it has the standard profile. “Koalas have two voltage does not belong here,” a downright cowardly leader.

The mold managerAvant to take their position, the new kids are all sent “on the road”. A test of six to twelve months during which they travel, shoulder computer, the province of supermarkets, install deodorants on the shelves at 5 am and slept at night in spartan hotels industrial area . “Hard, but essential for rub for retailers and consumers, “says an employee at Lascad (Dop, Mixa, Narta .). After this “hazing” scale, young product managers for two weeks following an integration course, the L’Oreal Culture Discovery, with presentation of different trades (R & D, finance, advertising .) and visits to factories or logistics centers.

Then it’s the big plunge. “It starts in the pool of the business and you have to learn to swim alone,” said one seat frame. This early empowerment, rare in multinationals is one of the key elements that appeals to young graduates. “By becoming a product manager on the red Maybelline lip, I found myself at the head of an SME. At 24! “Anna is still surprised Weste. Price segmentation of the range, merchandising, advertising . It’s all to do. Better then follow the motto here “! Lie with your products” At Clichy, one sees that they: Elvive shampoo mounds or aftershave Men Expert enthroned in each office.

Express promotions

If L’Oreal as dream in business schools and marketing, it is also because careers are faster than elsewhere. A manager with high potential, spotted after several successful launches, is automatically promoted every two or three years, as first group leader, operational marketing director then and CEO of a brand and finally a country. To expand its range, it often exchange sector. Before becoming Global Head of Professional Products, Christophe Leguay, 48, went through three divisions in France and then to Britain, where he oversaw L’Oreal Paris. The objective of the management? Maintain managers in a “healthy concern,” as they say in the jargon home and drive up the best. To the peaks.

Jean-Paul Agon has opened recruiting external talent, young people under 30 years still “formatables” or pointed seniors, as Veronique Gautier, former President Jean Paul Gaultier named International CEO of Giorgio Armani fragrances. And it now allows those who left L’Oreal – sacrilege time Owen-Jones – to return. But, most top managers are always from the Seraglio. The forty more senior officers are even the subject of a personalized succession plan, with, for each of them, three names identified dolphins in the house. The machine is not near seize .

Make your most seen the show stand

Make your most seen the show stand

If companies are scrambling in these events is that the game is worth the candle. But still need to stand out to attract visitors .

About 1,800 fairs are held every year in France. Companies come meet with their clients, new prospects, make themselves known or sniff the industry trend, observing the new competition. This participation, however, has a cost. A stand 10 to 20 square meters, in a medium-sized room, currency is between 8,000 and 16,000 euros. And it takes up to 40,000 euros for 25 square meters in a public event such as the Paris Motor Show. Basically, this budget is divided equally between the rental and management of the stand, on the one hand, and indirect costs (salaries, travel) and communication, on the other. Return on such investment implies attract maximum visitors. Our advice to achieve this.

Get as close as possible poles of attraction

Remember to book your place in advance. Even from one year to another if you expose a salon that practices “rebooking”. Get as close as possible poles of attraction: VIP area, TV studio (where the lectures are held), press office, bars, restaurants and even toilets (to benefit from the passage). Prefer a secondary driveway leading to a lively place: in the main walkways, visitors traveling in the middle and it is difficult to approach them. Since it is not a competitor, to stand beside a major exponent is a good idea because you will benefit from the crowds it generates. Avoid, however, the little busy places such as peripheral alleys, away from leisure and catering spaces. The just behind the entrance is also a gamble: in their tracks, visitors do not want to stop.

Use the best available means of communication

Your business must be included in the exhibition catalog (description of activity, number of the aisle, stand, etc.) Also, consider buying distribution rights, which will allow you to distribute flyers or giveaways in the aisles for a day or half a day. Do not overlook the tools offered by the organizers. On Direct Marketing expo, the communications agency Fidelis was able to afford form of dog paws that plodded inlays on the carpet to its booth (cost of such an operation: between 1,000 and 5,000 euros ). Before the event, announce your participation by all means: website, social network, newsletter and even signing your emails . Invite your customers and prospects by email three months in advance and make regular reminders in the last fortnight.

Make your booth attractive and look after the home

To capture attention, make sure that your stand is way off: lights and bright colors, large and beautiful images . Facilitate Access (outlaw stairs, partitions, door, etc.), take care of the decor (with plants green, for example), opt for designer furniture and choose a slogan that clearly describes your business: we must understand at a glance what you do. Another tip: put the emphasis on the height of the stand, even sacrifice some space, for thus it will gain in impact. Finally, fashionable trend, arrange a VIP area on the roof. Guaranteed effect! If your budget allows, enjoy the services of a hostess (250 to 300 euros per day). Also plan some training so she knows establish a first contact with visitors, educate or direct them to the right person.

Multiply gifts and friendliness signs

Sweets, cakes, “goodies” . these little touches will all hooks. In the alleys, offer giveaways (a magnet, for example). Once shod visitors, encourage them to drop their business card in a box to enter a daily draw lots which will, according to your means, a gift box, a touch pad or a flat screen. Plan also presents for your longstanding customers (business card case, memory stick, bottle of wine). On the stand, candy jars or drinks will help you retain visitors longer. Book alcohol at lunchtime and cocktails. In the morning, prepare coffee and indulge in at will.

Schedule of events and let us know

Multiply highlights: presentation of a novelty, launching a product which you invite the press. Citroën has waited for the Shanghai Motor Show in April to present the DS5: 600 journalists were present. If you have space, do as the United States: round tables about fifteen minutes, followed by a question-and-answer session with the audience. Invite your customers to participate in the showcase. And above all, do you know yourself by intervening in conferences organized by the living room. Animations must be announced and be reminders by email (the day before) and SMS (45 and 5 minutes before their start) to customers and prospects at the show. Some organizers are in charge of these automated submissions. Otherwise, go with a provider.

Student Loans: at what rate and what conditions borrow?

Student Loans: at what rate and what conditions borrow?

Between the rising cost of living and soaring real estate prices, many students have no choice but to seek help from their bankers. Offers of student loans distributed by most banking networks help you as much finance your university registration to face your current expenses (rent, transport, leisure .). Overview.

At what rate?

Sinews of war and comparison tool between banks, the annual percentage rate (APR) of a student loan integrates all students frais.Les offers rates are advantageous. They vary between 2.43% and 4% against 5-7% for traditional personal loan, excluding promotions.

Student loans are not available only to students pursuing prestigious cursus. For example, BTS young people are entitled to this type of credit. However, in many schools, the rate varies from continuing studies and reached level. More chances of finding gainful employment are large (large schools of engineering and business), less the rate is high. Those schools or universities have also linked partnerships with banks getting more interesting rates. Moreover, the more you progress in your studies when taking out your loan, plus the banker may be generous.

For which students?

First condition to qualify for a bank loan, be in possession of a student card and be enrolled in a graduate cycle: preparatory class, college, high school, regardless of the level: BTS, Bachelor, Master . student station too early because you must be an adult (the loan is in fact subscribed per student) and sometimes have less than 25 or 28 years. But more and more institutions offer these loans with no age limit. Thus, an employee taking up studies can take out a student loan at a better rate than a personal loan.

Over what time?

The student repays a period which generally does not exceed 9 or 10 years or 12 years, franchising included. Generally this franchise, during which you study and do not repay your loan, is from 1 month to 5 years (sometimes 7). It can be partial (you pay off the interest, insurance) or total (you pay nothing during the grace period). The final cost of a loan with total deferred is obviously higher than that of a loan with partial deferred.

How the money is released?

Money can be unlocked at once or gradually, during the studies, as required. The second solution is less expensive because the interest does not accrue until the money is not released.

What security?

If you are not employed or if your income is insufficient to get your loan, you will have the security of your parents or any other solvent person. If no one can guarantee your loan, you can apply for the State guarantee. Only some establishments accept this device (called OSEO loan): the network of Banques Populaires, Credit Mutuel, CIC, the savings banks and Societe Generale. The credit can then exceed 15,000 euros maximum repayable over 10 years and you should not have more than 28 years at the time of loan application.

With what assurance?

Banks offer insurance (death, loss of autonomy, inability to work) generally optional, for a modest fee (students are young, so a priori healthy), or 1 or 2 euros per month.

Loans at 0%

For smaller amounts, during re-entry, it is possible to take in some institutions loans at 0%. For example, BNP Paribas (Free Ready Campus), LCL (Feed Back) and Societe Generale offer loans up to 1,000 euros without interest, repayable over 12 months.

These small signs that taunt big

These small signs that taunt big

Bruno Felix Chazournes Bread and drink Ulrich Lebeuf and Stephane Remael for Management

Living in the shadow of giants of their industry, trade small channels have managed to get a place in the sun. Detailed review their strategies.

To my right, Decathlon 292 stores, more than 60,000 employees and 8.2 billion euros turnover worldwide (including 5 billion in France). A mastodon which accounts for half the French sports market. To my left, the Old Camper, 48 shops (including thirty in the 5th arrondissement of Paris), 450 employees and 140 million euros of turnover. The fight seems uneven. Yet the small Parisian sign (+ 2.66% growth and 1.2 million profit in 2014) resisted for forty years steamroller supermarkets.

His secret? A well thought out positioning, according to Michel Desbordes, sports marketing professor at Inseec “skiing, mountaineering, diving . The brand focuses on popular outdoor activities of a wealthy urban clientele on each. it adopts a high-end positioning, offering a wide selection of prestigious brands and quality service. an elitist strategy that works perfectly. ” The Old Camper is far from an isolated case. In an environment dominated by large signs, a few diehards still resist and always to the standardization of the offer. SMEs or mid-sized companies that have their own strategy to hold their own in the game.

Play complementarity

CarGo, a family business operating since 1988 on the car rental market. With 400 branches and 4,300 vehicles, this SME Chambery (Savoie) is not big enough to overshadow the Hertz, Avis and Europcar, which control three-quarters of the market. Therefore, rather than compete head-on with these great competitors, it is working to develop a complementary offer.

“We do not operate in stations or airports, but we are everywhere. We complement their mesh, said Dominique de Saint Leger, one of four brothers who run the company if we have some large accounts, we work mainly with artisans and SMEs, because it is easier to develop with them a lasting relationship of trust We play a lot on proximity. if a customer needs a car down from his home at 7 am morning, we deliver him! ” The concept works CarGo and its 85 employees achieved a turnover of 28 million euros and posting profits.

Upgrade to a higher range

Specialized in the distribution of photo and video products, the company Camara hunt on the lands of Fnac, Darty and Boulanger. The 130 stores in its network to play the card of specialization. “Employees who are content to put a box on a counter, reading a barcode and to cash, there are many. However, vendors able to open the box, to explain the operation of the appliance and give advice, it is rare. it’s what we do. in some stores, we even offer free training to our customers, “said Francis Dupas, President of TAS group that unites the stores.

Since the advent of digital photography (and loss of income related to the development of film and the draw pictures), the network has made a move upmarket. It now targets enthusiasts, experts and pros. And it works: the company (425 employees, 100 million euros of turnover) will grant 25% of market share in the medium and high end devices, those that generate the highest margins and are no competition from smartphones.

More confidential, the company prosperous O’CD a niche neglected by major distributors of cultural products: the opportunity and catalogs funds. “Cultura Fnac and sell 20% of movies and discs that make 80% of the sector’s revenues, summarizes its founder, Felix Drink Chazournes. We, we sell the 80% that generate the remaining 20%. Our business model is not to sell a thousand times a movie, but a thousand movies once. “

Sixteen shops in the center of major cities (including Paris, Lyon and Geneva), from 12,000 to 16,000 references in each of them, sharp and passionate sellers: the concept O’CD works since 1994. The articles are set radius a rate of around 12 or 13 euros. Those who are not sold at the end of three months saw their prices fall gradually to finish at 1 or 2 euros at the door of the store.

“It’s like the stock market, says Felix Drink Chazournes. The dimension of a movie or a CD depends on its rarity or cultural events. The release of a new James Bond, for example, causes a renewed interest in the old episodes. ” The activity of this SME of 70 employees as it suffers from legal and illegal downloads, beating down the sales of CDs and DVDs. But back in vogue vinyl allowed it to stabilize its sales to 6.5 million.

Imitating the great

In some markets, it may be wise to learn from the strategy of tenors. Jean-Louis Petruzzi, boss Menway, has decided to emulate the giants of the acting (Manpower, Adecco, Randstad) expanding its activity in the recruitment and career management. Several acquisitions have made his company a HR group present on these three businesses.

“Without comparing ourselves to great, we try to apply strategic thinking to a local and regional level, he said. Integrating all these skills allows us to understand all the needs of our customers, beyond only temporary. It is a position that few companies of our size to adopt. ” Founded in 2002, the company based in Metz employs 300 people and has a turnover of 150 million euros. It has fifty branches in France.

Attacking the leader

Finally, when you are an outsider, it may be tempting to go tickle the dominant player. This is what seeks to Funecap in the market for funeral services. Since its creation in 2010 by Ophiliam Management, a private fund management, the group achieved a fifty acquisitions. That of the Roc-Eclerc franchise in July 2015 has grown to become number two in the sector.

With 250 million euros in turnover, the company is still far from the leader OGF (540 million), which includes general Undertakers, the incumbent. But the fragmentation of this market weighing 2 billion leaves her excellent growth prospects. “We are developing an offer in person and another franchise, with the ambition to match the leader explains Philippe Gentil, one of the partners. We want to become a group of brands targeting different market segments, like Accor in the inn. ” It is possible to get a place alongside a dominant player. Waiting to become oneself a big fish.

Bluntly Flowers

Number of stores: 31

Turnover 13.5 million euros

Leaders:  Monceau Fleurs, The Garden flowers

Praised Bruno Pain plans to open 15 shops franchise this year. Ulrich Lebeuf for Management

Pain Bruno, founder and CEO

“We offer our franchisees to 100% return more than our competitors”

“After six years to improve and finalize our concept of flower shops we decided to launch our duty. To convince entrepreneurs to join us, we ask them twice less royalties than our competitors. Where Monceau Fleurs (130 stores) and the Garden of flowers (70 stores) require approximately 6% of revenue, we take 3%, capped at 12,000 euros per year. Certainly, this is less money for the head, but franchisees can thus double their profitability and live better. We have also a lot of applications for membership. so far we do not hold fast as 1%. this year, we will double this figure with the planned opening of five new shops. “

Findis (Proxi appliances Comfort DOMIAL, Extra .)

Number of stores: 1,200 (six stores)

Revenues: 300 million euros

Leaders: Conforama, Darty, Boulanger

At the heart of cities, Frederic Jumentier with one of its franchisees Extra, near Nantes. Franck Tomps for Management

Frederic Jumentier, president of the group

“Our most? The customer proximity”

“We operate in cities with less than 20,000 inhabitants, where the impact of major retailers is less strong and direct contact with the merchant, a strong argument. Our customers value convenience stores for the reception, counseling and after-sales service. however, they fear to find fewer choices and pay more than large chains. the group’s mission is to overcome this disadvantage. to offer a wide choice, we store in warehouse 35.000 references available at D + 1. the concept works well: the stores that use our communication tools (e-commerce sites pros and personalized newsletters .) recorded a higher growth of 3% to the overall industry average. “

Neoness (fitness rooms)

Number of rooms: 17

Revenues: N

Leaders: Blue Orange, Moving, Nextalia

Celine Wisselink (left) and Marie-Anne Teissier shook the small world of fitness. Stephane Remael for Management

Marie-Anne Teissier and Celine Wisselink, cofounders

“We relied on the low-cost”

“With us, you only pay what you consume! Exclaimed Marie-Anne Teissier. The monthly subscription costs 10 euros. It includes access to the room and our cardio and weight machines . during peak hours of the day to access full hours, customers add 10 euros to attend group classes, another 5 euros 50 cents for a shower, etc.

Even by combining all the options, it is difficult to find cheaper elsewhere. In our clubs, there is no steam or sauna or pool, because this equipment very expensive, would take off the price of subscriptions, as they are only used by 5% of the members. We have to raise 25 million euros to open eight new rooms this year. “

O’CD (selling discs, DVDs and video games)

Number of stores: 16

Chiffresd’affaires: 6.5 million euros

Leaders: Fnac, Cultura

Felix Drink Chazournes surfs the comeback of vinyl. Stephane Remael for Management

Felix Drink Chazournes, founder and CEO

“In the big bestsellers and we everything else!”

“While Cultura Fnac or focus on blockbusters and new developments, we sell the rest: movies and discs that are no longer in fashion, catalogs funds, opportunities, etc. We enjoy the disengagement large signs on products deemed too inefficient to be kept in stock. in doing so, we experience cultural diversity. “

3 questions for Daniel Ray, professor of marketing

Daniel Ray is responsible for the Institute of customer Business School Admission in Grenoble Management School DR

Management: What is the best strategy to withstand a big sign?

Daniel Ray:  There are two, mainly. The first is to target a niche in which the dominant player is not or seldom. The second, to differentiate him from building on a breakthrough innovation.

But that does not occur every day. We can then try to offer the consumer a better customer experience.

Management: What do you mean by that?

Daniel Ray:  The customer experience is the set of emotions and feelings experienced by a client before, during and after a purchase. It is the addition of many parameters: advertising, in-store ambience, contact with the seller . A player with deep pockets can easily copy a product or marketing concept. However, it will be virtually impossible to reproduce the customer experience of a competitor.

Management: Why?

Daniel Ray:  Because building a relationship with customers takes time and a particular culture. Certainly, large groups train their employees to practice SBAM (smile / hello / goodbye / thank you). But their distribution channels are, the more these processes become difficult to implement. And, ultimately, the customer goes where he feels most welcome.

Publicis Groupe: Supervisory Board

Publicis Groupe: Supervisory Board

Monique Bercault whose term also expires, expressed the wish not to apply for renewal.

Moreover, on the advice of Publicis Groupe’s Nomination Committee, the General Assembly will be offered the appointment of three new members to the Supervisory Board: Mrs Marie-Claude Mayer, Worldwide Account Director, Publicis, Marie-Josee Kravis , President of the museum of modern art of New York (MOMA) and Veronique Morali, President of Fimalac Developpement.

Thus, subject to approval by the general meeting, the Publicis Groupe Supervisory Board will have 7 women and 9 men or 16 members, including 8 independent.

Recall that the current Supervisory Board has 14 members (after the resignation of Mrs. Leone Meyer intervened in November 2009):

– Elisabeth Badinter, Chair of the Supervisory Board of Publicis Groupe SA – Sophie Dulac, Manager of Sophie Dulac Productions – Simon Badinter, Chairman and CEO of Medias & Regies Europe – Monique Bercault, Technical Advisor to the President of Medias & Regies Europe (whose reappointment is not offered) – Claudine Bienaime, Member of the Supervisory Board since June 2008 – Michel Cicurel, CEO of Compagnie Financière Edmond de Rothschild – Henri-Calixte Suaudeau, Director of Publicis Conseil – Michel Halperin, Attorney – Helène Ploix, President Pechel Industries – Amaury de Seze, Chairman of the Board and the Carrefour Group – Gerard Worms, Managing Partner of Rothschild & Cie Banque – Tatsuyoshi Takashima, President & CEO of Dentsu Inc. – Felix George Rohatyn, Special advisor to the Chairman of Lazard (Special advisor to Chairman & CEO) – Tadashi Ishii, Executive Vice President of e Dentsu Inc.

Marie-Claude Mayer, born on 7 October 1947, graduated from the Institut d’Etudes Politiques de Paris and holds a Master of Sociology, started his career at Publicis Conseil in 1972 as Assistant Advertising Manager. Named Account Director, she manages large budgets in various sectors (Colgate, Europ Assistance, Nestle, Galeries Lafayette, Dim / Sara Lee, etc.). Then she joined the Board of Publicis Executive Committee as Executive Vice President. In 1998, it takes international functions as Worldwide Account Director to oversee the Group’s brands L’Oreal managed by the Publicis network in more than 70 countries (Garnier SoftSheen.Carson, LaScad, Lancome, Biotherm, Helena Rubinstein, L L’Oreal Professional, Kerastase, Matrix). Since 2009, she is a member of the Shareholders’ Committee of the Women’s Forum for the Economy and Society.

Mrs. Marie-Josee Kravis, born September 11, 1949, received a Masters in Economics from the University of Ottawa. She is an economist specializing in public policy analysis and strategic planning. She works with the Hudson Institute since 1973. As a journalist, she has written sections for several Canadian newspapers. She also writes articles for the magazine “Foreign Affairs” and the Wall Street Journal. She is the President of the Museum of Modern Art (New York) and board member of the Hudson Institute and The Robin Hood Foundation. She is a member of the Board of Overseers and that of the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. She is a member of the International Committee of Advisors of the Federal Reserve Bank in New York.

Mrs. Veronique Morali, born September 12, 1958, graduated from the Institut d’Etudes Politiques de Paris and the Ecole Superieure de Commerce de Paris, was, from 1990 successively advisor, Deputy CEO, Director and Managing Director of the Group Finalac then President Finalac Development and Director and Vice-Chairman of Fitch Group. In December 2009, she was appointed Director of Coca Cola Enterprises Inc and President of Women Corporate Directors Paris. She is founder and President of the site Terrafemina and, since 2010, member of the Shareholders’ Committee of the Women’s Forum for the Economy and Society.

About Publicis Groupe

(Euronext Paris: FR0000130577) is the third largest communications group, the world’s second largest media counsel and buying in and the global leader in digital communications and in health. The Group is present in 104 countries on 5 continents and has approximately 45,000 employees. The Groupe offers communication services to local and international clients a complete range of advertising through three global advertising networks, Leo Burnett, Publicis, Saatchi & Saatchi, and two multi-hub networks, Fallon and Bartle Bogle Hegarty (49% subsidiary). The Board and the purchase of media space is offered through two worldwide networks, Starcom MediaVest Group and ZenithOptimedia; and expertise in digital and interactive communications through Digitas and Razorfish including networks. Publicis Groupe launched VivaKi to leverage the synergies of the autonomous operations of Digitas, Razorfish, Starcom MediaVest Group, Denuo and ZenithOptimedia. This entity develops new services, tools, and next generation digital platforms. The Group’s offer also includes marketing services and specialized communications and multicultural communications, healthcare communications with Publicis Healthcare Communications Group (PHCG), corporate and financial communications, public relations, social marketing, event marketing and sports through MS & L Group, one of the world’s top five networks in these trades.

Pick subsidies for your training

Pick subsidies for your training

The funding mechanisms available to companies are numerous and they follow complex procedures. Our advice to knock on the right doors and treat your application files.

Companies on average spend 3% of their payroll on training their employees. This is more than the legal minimum. Which varies with the size of the companies: 0.55% for the structures of less than 10 employees, 1.5% between 10 and 19 individuals and up to 1.6% from 20 employees. But in a recession, the management is trying to close the tap and to stick to that threshold. According Cegos, 40% of companies have also tightened the budget in 2009. bad reflex. Training is one of the most proven ways to prepare a crisis. Employers would most harm especially to miss that multiple devices can contribute to its funding.

Priority populations

First possibility: seek joint body authorized collector (OPCA) of your industry. Each of these structures (there are 90) freely determine its attribution rules: amount of supported, type and duration of the actions prioritized, direct payment at the training organization or reimbursement to the company, etc. This is the OPCA which defines, early in the year, the number of files that can make a company, in proportion to its numbers.

This organization (which deals only with individual folders) gives in principle priority to certain risk populations considered: employees over 40 years and with twenty years of professional activity, those who have not benefited from training for more three years, returns of elective office, maternity or parental leave, workers with disabilities. A company needs an accountant who can not afford to recruit may well offer an executive assistant skills training, the cost will be supported. The projects developed under the individual right to training (DIF) can also be subsidized (an OPCA on two proposed).

For such an application to be successful, must still meet certain conditions. The duration of training first of all: to thirty-five to seventy hours per person minimum (as agencies), with a ceiling of three hundred hours. In other words, no less than five to ten days, imperatively programmed alternately. The course theme should be linked to the main business of the company. As for the amount allocated, it depends on Opca. The less well-off (associations, agricultural, medical) limit its funding to € 9.15 per hour of training. The richest (metallurgy, artistic professions, studies and consulting) go up to 50 euros. Needless to negotiate These rates are set by the social partners.

Future restructurings

For projects of greater magnitude, especially for group shots, please contact the region, to the state or to Europe. Their grants may cover 20% to 80% of the sums involved. This will be the case, for example, for a company considering heavy training because it anticipates future reorganizations. These programs can mobilize up to 100,000 euros. For a chance to win the case with these bodies, the matter must aim the development of transversal skills that beneficiaries can develop outside their own service or even in other companies. Then, each window has its own objectives. Thus, regional councils

Focus on companies with fewer than 250 employees, realizing a turnover of less than EUR 50 million. Provided that they are not held for more than 25% by a company that does not meet the first two conditions.

Social goals

State aid is granted by the Regional Directorate of Labor, Employment and Vocational Training (DRTEFP). Through agreements Commitments development of employment and skills (Edec) and agreements for training and adaptation of the National Employment Fund (FNE), they are intended to maintain the employability of employees. It will defend here referred to social projects in which training occurs, for example, as an alternative to layoffs. Same priority to the social side of Europe. But in this case it is the prefecture which sends the file in Brussels. Nothing prevents hitting several counters, aid to the region and state are cumulative, like those of the State and Europe. Unable to cash in contrast to both the manna of Opca and that of the region. The agreement of the Opca is indispensable for national and European subsidies.

Meet deadlines

The success of the approach then be based on a strict timing. The application is often downloaded from the Internet, but must manually sign and send by mail. Once the dossier, count between fifteen and thirty days to get a decision if the request is for a Opca. The ideal is, in this case, to provide a two-month retroplanning before the start of training. Of the conditions can be negotiated with the training firm: if the company does not get subsidies, it may cancel their registration without payment. Most organizations have used to discuss such conditions, let alone in the context of individual training.

If the file to the recipient region, state or Europe, plan at least four months between the filing of the application and the start of training actions envisaged. And count one more month for the preparation of the dossier. Concerning the region, better show up early in the year. Later, the funds are often empty. the regional council decisions are indeed made subject to budgetary availability.

No room for error

Whatever the requested institution, do not overlook any detail and fill each box. In case of deficiency, you will have no second chance or request for clarification: your file will go in the trash without further ado. So you need to learn precisely before you start by consulting the websites of financiers, usually very full on the terms and conditions of eligibility.

Applications from Opca be summarized in general the basic identification data communications company and candidate training. individual logic compels you have to fill a record per employee, joining the training program, details of alternation, as well as the estimate of the training firm.

The records for the regional council, the prefecture DRTEFP or are otherwise more complicated to build. Seriously argued on the intended strategy, they should include administrative and accounting documents. It will thus mobilize internal legal and financial services and human resources management. And do not hesitate to seek Opca, which remains a valuable source of information and explanation of the funding mechanisms.

An MBA to become a manager?

An MBA to become a manager?

Career Accelerator, the Master of Business Administration, MBA sigle enables executives engaged in professional life to complete their training in the areas of management, economics, human resources, finance and languages ​​to access to the most senior positions. But disappointed argue that the benefits of solid gold (or so) of the MBA are not always the rendezvous. The MBA market, however, continues to flourish, with nearly 250 programs in France alone, some of which are recognized worldwide. MBA from INSEAD in Fontainebleau, even topped the ranking MBA 2016 Financiel Times. Much further, we find the MBA of HEC School of Management Grenoble (EM) and Hedeč Grenoble.

The MBA landed in France in 1957 by the European Institute of Business Administration says INSEAD, which creates, in our country, the first training for professional purposes very high level. This MBA, based in Fontaibebleau, has a global impact: first, it is important teaching methods in force in the American business schools, turned mainly to practice while in France the education is still highly theoretical . Immediately, the MBA is displayed as a highly selective training since it takes particular fluently speak several languages ​​and justify several years experience at high level.

Twenty years later, in 1969, HEC (Hautes Etudes Commerciales) creates, in turn, an MBA who meets the same success. Next came those of ESSEC and ESCP.

Today the MBA schools are resolutely internationally oriented with “students” who come from all countries and trainings that take place both in France and abroad.

MBA democratized but sometimes “demonetized”

Long, the MBA was displayed as the path to excellence, reserved for an elite with substantial financial resources, an MBA can cost as much as a finely crafted apartment.

Things have changed. The MBA has ceased to be the preserve of schools. Universities also offer MBA course fee but much cheaper, as small private schools without anyone ever know if the quality is at the rendezvous.

In a study published two years ago, XERFI an economic analysis firm noted that the MBA remains a growth market, but characterized by rough marketing strategies. Main complaint: the vast majority of institutions offer their MBA to a global audience when we should finely target a specific category of applicants and target specialization.

The positioning of excellence is, according to this study, present and relevant only for a small minority of institutions. Despite reservations, the majority of those who have an MBA in a side institution stated that “worth” and do not regret the financial effort.

While the MBA has been democratized to become accessible for deep pockets. But it must still count from 70,000 to 100,000 euros for a year of education in high schools, half in universities.

If training tempts you, consider partial funding of MBA using your individual right to training (DIF), now training the personal account (CPF). Some Fongecif these agencies managing the funds of the vocational training of employees, give some financial help to pay part of the MBA, the rest of the price may be subject to credit from his bank. Nor is forbidden to apply for funding to your employer and OPCA, the approved joint body which the cash contribution to the formation caused by companies.

In all cases, ensure that the MBA is considered registered in the national directory of professional certifications (RNCP). Some large schools offer young people under 26 years old MBA alternately, but space is limited.

In the kitchens of the Quai d’Orsay: excellence in French

At the Foreign Ministry, a team continues the tradition of gastronomy and service to the French. Tour in the label temple.

On the surface, the Foreign Ministry shining golds of the Republic. Yet past the different state rooms, a staircase leads to a less flashy but equally strategic basement. In the kitchen, in fact, the polished floor gives way to a black and white tiles and gilded ceilings with exposed pipes.

In this simple and functional decor leads a prestige battle in which the requirement level must be up to the professional mission assigned to the team representing France and its good manners with guests from the Quai d’Orsay. This requirement applies to all members of the staff: the twenty cooks and clerks, but also to the two seamstresses, both bankers and six butlers that provide room service.

Marc Chaumeil for Management

CHOREOGRAPHY ball.  Each year, approximately 60,000 meals are served in the ministry. “As much at Crillon, on the other side of the Seine, explains Thierry Charrier, the chef. I make sure that every member of my team has the will to achieve perfection, even when it comes to preparing the 150 to 200 daily meal trays for staff. “If unlike his colleagues who come toques greet their guests, he remains a man of the shadows, it shares with them a commitment to excellence.

In the back stairs that leads to the reception rooms, the whereabouts of the trays are relentless. Les six butlers lead this ballet with tremendous efficiency, rivaling discretion and propriety. Their goals? Valuing dishes accompany the meal by forgetting their presence while respecting the letter the French service that requires a ball choreography. The dishes are presented on the left and served by the right, while the guests serve themselves using cutlery highlighted.

Tables set with care protocol: Butlers and seamstresses start preparing the room in the morning, well before the arrival of the guests. The layers are deposited neatly and ironed on the huge coffee table Beauvais. The cover can then be arranged maintaining a distance of 30 to 50 centimeters between two plates.

Every detail counts: the teeth forks side table, an additional share provided in case of greedy guest . an unknown protocol of the public, which may seem a bit outdated. Never mind ! Other departments are all put to plate service – deemed more modern -, the Foreign Ministry is indeed the last defense of this tradition dating back to the eighteenth century.

The Quartermaster General of the Ministry, Thierry Bouron, has made it his mission on behalf of his employer, France. “Only the Elysee continues to practice this service sporadically. We are the last ministry to respect the everyday and the only ones able to perpetuate the tradition, “confirms this fifties who, before arriving at the Quai d’Orsay in the 1980s, did his military service in private service former President Valery Giscard d’Estaing.

TRAINEE DIP.  Today, as a steward general, he is responsible for scheduling the team and juggles rooms, culinary requests and needs of each guest. To provide the ultimate luxury for staff and guests of the prestigious Foreign Ministry – custom receptions – it relies on an assistant who oversees the butlers.

Thierry Bouron is also the Compliance and transmission of the label and the service French. “Each year we welcome a professional quarantine from all the embassies of France in the world. These trainees – waiters or cooks – find themselves immersed for five days, “he says, putting his cup of tea on a British glass below.

A similar logic to that of a large group that receives the seat frames its subsidiaries . “We are a little home mother of French gastronomy. We help our satellites abroad up competence, “says chef Thierry Charrier, whose office door is decorated with postcards sent around the world by former trainees.

In this week of January, the chef of the Embassy in Georgia has been replaced by Evgenia Szoeva, butler in Bulgaria. His first day was devoted to observing the work of silversmiths, who watch over a national treasure – two services Sevres particular, kept in a secret location as their value is priceless.

Silver and porcelain of the Republic: Crockery Bernardaud, Christofle silverware and crystal St. Louis. The must of tableware, 100% made in France.

Today, for the first fiscal sized, Evgenia serves breakfast from 8 am 30 gathering about a hundred ambassadors in the dining room, at the monthly meeting of the Club of Entrepreneurs. An intervention of Sebastien Bazin, CEO of Accor, is scheduled this morning. “After six years at the embassy in Sofia, I just observe what is done here, learn some practices, including service to the French,” she says in halting franglais.

impeccable service in the kitchen and in the living rooms: In the kitchen, the tenors of the trade that display years in great restaurants, alongside disabled employees and those undergoing conversion (including a former professional football player).

The Minister of Foreign Affairs, Jean-Marc Ayrault, is served by butlers.

ZEST FOR INNOVATION.  After the first service, Evgenia Szœva prepares lunch Matthias Fekl, Secretary of State for Foreign Trade, Promotion of tourism and French overseas . and object of attention since he came kitchen to congratulate the team for their kouign-amann with apples.

For if the brigade continues the tradition by serving classic recipes, it seeks nevertheless to surprise. Welcoming foreign students contributes by blowing on this venerable house, guardian of tradition, a light breeze innovation.


1. Quiet and advance.  Choose a bit noisy and convenient place for your host (not too far from his place of work). And ask about her tastes. This will prevent you to invite in a meat restaurant while he is vegetarian .

Arriving a few minutes early, you will ensure that the table for you and let your guest room that faces the room.

2. Discreetly.

The ideal is to prevent – at the time of booking – it is you who will pay. And, if you do not pay the bill, never offer to share. Finally, send a thank you to the shared moment.

3. Pace.  The duration of a meal should not exceed one hour and a half. To keep this timing, enter the heart of the subject upon entry.

How far the company uberisation she going to go?

How far the company uberisation she going to go?

Better services for a lower price . It’s hard to believe but the recent decline in prices VTC service Uber, in response to new commercial offers Parisian taxi companies Taxis G7 and blue looking to regain lost customers, is an example among others of the ongoing revolution that crosses our economy, shaken by the Internet. The revolution of apps seem a boon to consumers. But it is likely to increase unemployment and job insecurity. This is what we should expect .

See its Paris headquarters, a simple apartment of 200 square meters perched above a scooter dealer in the Sentier district, Creads we imagine that evil can shake the emperors of advertising. “In France, Publicis and Havas share the cake for too long. We must shake up! “, Yet swagger Julien Mechin, co-founder of the start-up of 40 employees. The secret of this 2.0 Robespierre to decapitate the multinationals? When agencies pay thousands of creative, it does not pay any. He simply created a network of 50,000 independent workers, advertisers (Citroën, La Poste .) can create competition in a few clicks and cost. “Only the ten best projects are paid and we keep half the profits,” said the boss. Last spring, 175 members of the community have been working on the name of a credit card to Societe Generale. First prize for the winner? 200 euros. A good example of uberisation.

UBERISATION? This neologism FASHIONABLE  hides an economic tsunami. With the democratization of broadband, smartphones and geolocation, the crafty launch across new platforms online, usually applications that connect freelance workers and their clients without passing through conventional intermediate. These captains of industry of croqueurs generally remunerate the commission.

Their models? Airbnb, the hotel became the world without hotels landlord (1.5 million rooms), and, of course, Uber, the application that changed the ultrareglemente taxi industry without wages to any driver and that investors now value as much as General Motors 51 billion. Many startups who dream to do as well! “In a third of investment requests I receive, the business model is based on the uberisation” says the serial investor Marc Simoncini, former creator of Meetic dating site.

Transport, logistics, tourism, personal services, restaurants, bank and even the sex industry . This new form of activity is gaining ground like wildfire in almost all sectors. According to experts of Deloitte, who call the “economy on demand”, she should weigh 100 billion within three years. Certainly, his way is not drawn in advance, for the old economy did everything to defend against the invader. Uber and its drivers, for example, compete for months on every continent of stone throwing, strikes and lawsuits from California to France. But these rearguard skirmishes will only slow the movement irretrievably committed. “Soon, all intermediate worthless will be swept away,” says Stanislas de Bentzmann, president of Croissance Plus. Should we complain or rejoice?

It all depends on which side one takes! From the perspective of the consumer, the uberisation is undoubtedly a boon. First, because the technology it sets in motion improves services. With the rating system and assessments in place on most platforms, for example, evaluation of the services is permanent, and this virtuous system sufficient to exclude immediately the bad.

You were planning to rent out on Drivy wreck sleeping in your garage? You’d better give up! At the French leader in car rentals between individuals, all vehicles are systematically rated on a scale of one to five stars. And their owners valued the heading comment. “GDS available, accommodating, responsive . I highly recommend it,” says Julie, for example, about Gaël C, the individual who rented him a Renault Master van in Saint-Maur-des-Fosses (94). On the site of Drivy, design more intuitive than those of Avis or Hertz, even the average response time is listed lessor. Woe to those who place more than three hours to remind customers .

BENEFIT TWO: THE PRICE.  “Our members pay an average of 6 cents per kilometer”, says Frederic Mazzella, the CEO of BlaBlaCar the European carpooling leader. Unbeatable! True, the prices of apps are not always more competitive than those charged by traditional players, but they have the merit of being almost always fixed in advance, limiting surprises.

Done scam plumber who, under the pretext of calling urgently for a water leak case without taking the time to request a quote, the opportunity to rob your wallet! On Hellocasa, a 100% tricolor application that puts customers directly and professional network, all services – plumbing, painting, electrical, DIY, gardening – are set in advance and pass (from 69 euros per trip in Paris, a quarter of that amount due to the start-up). Same principle at Popmyday, a startup founded by two former HEC, offering home care (haircuts, manicures, makeup, etc.) seven days a week, from 7 am to 22 hours.

Consumers also enjoy the benefits of geolocation, present on many of the applications. Without it, Deliveroo would never have been possible. This British nugget has established a network of 1,200 independent couriers (self-employed entrepreneurs, students, unemployed) to offer restaurants that do not have a delivery service to serve their customers home in their place. With a single glance at his smartphone, the hungry city can know in real time the location of the delivery and the distance that remains to be done. For its part, the restaurant, which has access to the same data, can monitor the command has arrived to before it cools. Same with Uber, Lecab or Driver-deprived: the hurried traveler is presented with real-time the location of the nearest saloon and the time it will take to pick him, without paying a penny more.

Ultimate consumer benefit: the invasion of the barbarians on their territory strength traditional players to move. “To maintain their market share, they must absolutely be put at the startup that uberisent them,” says Jean-Marc Liduena, partner strategy and innovation at Deloitte monitor. Thus, the most affected sectors, such as hotels, make efforts on prices and some taxi drivers are beginning to offer water bottles to their customers. And the National Union of taxis is now lapping at the moment in the streets of Bordeaux an application on the model of Uber.

FOR SOME EMPLOYEES IN POST,  by against the uberisation is very bad news. She rushes we indeed towards a world without CDI, where the Labor Code could become very quickly a scrap of paper. “Historically, the organization of vast scale production had always assumed the establishment of a business, gold is no longer necessary, “observes economist Jean Pisani-Ferry.

Certainly the incredible flexibility of the new system will offer many opportunities for the unemployed and precarious languishing on the wrong side of the line. “Eventually, and if all goes ideally, technological change could allow everyone to become his own boss and work when and where it chooses. Marx’s dream after all! “Says the president of the liberal think tank GenerationLibre Gaspard Koenig. “Today, a mother who wants to work only when children are asleep can do it very easily,” adds the CEO of Crowd Factory, Daniel Benoilid. In a sense, this is good news because it will enable to blast the red line fracture in decades our labor market. The problem is that this social revolution is going to pay a high price for the millions of workers on the job.

THERE WILL NOT BY FOUR PATHS:  currently, uberisation synonymous with insecurity. Not only new employees “independent” enjoy no guarantee, but they are often paid slingshot. It must be said that many of the tasks proposed by the apps are very lucrative.

On the Amazon Mechanical Turk, for example, a platform that allows companies to delegate administrative tasks to users of crowds, the price is freely determined by the principal. This drives prices down. It must be said that the start-up self-imposed limitation of salaries (often 33,000 euros a year, the ceiling of the autoentreprenariat) for fear of their “employees” reclassified as employees. We should add that almost all of these shoots is not profitable: Airbnb is expected to lose $ 150 million this year and Uber three times. In bankruptcy, thousands of people will see their income melt!

But there are more serious: the economy at the request could destroy many more jobs than it will not create. “Until now, innovation cycles had always helped offset the jobs destroyed. But this time the situation will change, “predicts Bruno Teboul, scientific director at Keyrus and coauthor of” Uberisation = torn Economy? “(Editions Kawa).

Take the example of the bank. If the French lend money directly to each other through crowdfunding platforms (such Kisskissbankbank or LendingClub) and regulate all current operations (transfers, etc.) for dedicated applications, what the devil will serve them well tellers?

The middle class will be the first to suffer from the situation. “In the US, the polarization of the world of work has already started and it’s disturbing,” alert Jean Pisani-Ferry. On one side US companies are struggling to attract the rarest profiles, on the other they outsource mass maximum tasks. So, there, one in three trim already freelance. “Most prefer to occupy well-paid and secure jobs,” recently lamented the former Labor Secretary Clinton, Robert Reich, for whom the appearance of these new jobs is a “nightmare”. No wonder across the Atlantic the uberisation be presented as a beacon on the upcoming presidential election.

It is not still here with us. For now, our companies are rather . watch the trains. In a system where the first takes all ( “winner takes all”), the dominant platforms, often American, are rain or shine. Certainly we have a nice nugget: BlaBlaCar the carpool champion who lifted smoothly EUR 73 million last year to support its international expansion. “But this is an isolated case and, for the rest, we are still far away billions that collect startups Anglo-Saxon” observes Bruno Teboul.

The explanation for this delay? Our heavy taxation, which cools the business hexagonal Angels, of course, the language barrier (most often, apps are first launched in French, which does not make things easier) and the difficulties of our engineers to communicate their ideas and to popularize.

The funniest thing is that the solution may come from our good old traditional groups. Faced with the onslaught of startups, some have indeed chosen to throw into battle without fear of cannibalizing their business. To return the young hackers used to rent equipment from other sites like Zilok, Mr. Bricolage has launched its own case for example of tool lending between individuals, Ladepanne.fr. Even SNCF uberise! Since she offered 75% stake in the private car rental Ouicar (number 2 in France behind Drivy, with 400,000 members), all guests can take advantage of car sharing. Beware, Yankees, we come!

– Taxis: In Paris, Uber has dynamited the market

Within months, Uber, or Lecab Heetch were old-hat taxis of the Business School Admission. They operate more than 10,000 vehicles.

Gain for the consumer: Smiling water bottle, impeccable car price known in advance, less waiting, geolocation vehicle that picks you up . The new services have advantages. The price, it may be lower or higher, depending on demand.

Social consequences:  As Uber has no plate to pay for its vehicles, occupation denounces unfair competition. The Uberpop Service (anyone can improvise driver with own car) has, meanwhile, been banned.

– Sex: Always the peep show . but home!

Done dubious clubs where you enter hugging the walls. Now, striptease fans can see live shows offered by pros or madams All-the-World on their screen via specialist websites.

Gain for the consumer:  more comfortable, cleaner, quieter, the system has two flaws. Online strippers do not appear in the flesh. And at 4 euros per minute, the score can rise very quickly.

Social consequences: Student or not shy household can earn 250 euros per hour. But the sites often conceal plants call girls in Eastern Europe, where girls are exploited shabbily.

– Credits: No need for bank to borrow

New platforms, such Unilend or Ready Dunion, put in special relationship or SMEs who want to borrow with those who can pay.

Gain for the consumer:  Everyone wins. Lenders often pocketing best interests to market. Borrowers themselves, are funded more quickly and easily, without having to provide many guarantees. Crowdfunding mechanisms (grants) can also take over when banks refuse projects.

Social consequences: All the traditional banking activities are questioned. Eventually, thousands of jobs could be threatened.

– Delivery: Anyone can improvise steeds

A meal to be delivered? A package to file? With Deliveroo Toktoktok or more need professional couriers. These are individuals who do the work.

Gain for the consumer:  More flexibility, more rapid (32 minutes on average for Deliveroo), a smaller bill and the ability to track their parcel GPS: These new apps are any benefits for the customer. And as the carriers are noted, they work well!

Social consequences: This service will enable thousands of students, unemployed or precarious to earn up to 25 euros per hour. By cons, it may weaken hundreds of courier companies.

– Creative Tasks: Soon the end of the advertising agencies?

Slogan to find, logo drawing . In recent months, the sites put human order of donors with a network of thousands of independent creative. The offer is open to everyone, everyone is free to respond.

Gain for the outsourcer: No more heavy and opaque billing agencies! With this system, benefits can cost a hundred times cheaper. Societe Generale has thus offered a new credit card name . 400 euros!

Social consequences: Advertising Agencies and com going to leave feathers. The creative also because only the winner of the tender is paid. The others work for nothing.

– rental or lending of objects: Between individuals, it’s cheaper!

Many sites like Zylok, Ilokyou or Lamachineduvoisin offer individuals to rent (or lend) their tools, their equipment and household appliances. They are increasingly popular.

Gain for the consumer:  The system is more flexible and significantly less expensive than traditional rental companies. But beware of scams, frequent these sites. The rating system and comments, which can rule dishonest users, should contribute to the household.

Social consequences: In time, equipment rental companies could cut thousands of jobs.

– Administrative tasks: Small hands free at all times

Ranking files, SEO, screening opinion ironic . These very low-skilled microtasks but impossible with software, will be increasingly outsourced. Sites like Crowd Factory offer to entrust them to thousands of volunteer individuals. Just that they have a screen.

Gain for the outsourcer:  More flexibility and substantial savings.

Social consequences: The system allows thousands of people in need to supplement their income easily (up to 3,000 euros per month). But it goes a little more precarious unskilled workers.

And other areas are also affected: 

Video Content  By allowing everyone to share and monetize their videos, YouTube was the first paved the way for the uberisation.

Home Services  The apps Hellocasa or Popmyday offer home staff for almost all tasks (plumbing, hairdressing, etc.).

Law  The legal advice startups popping up on the web and offer quick fixes.

Clothing  Several sites offer to individuals to exchange clothes.

Tourism  The Airbnb, HomeAway, HomeExchange dynamite and other hospitality already.

Food  It is possible to sell part of the dinner we cooked at home, through, among others, the Super-pot site.

Fernand Braudel (1902-1985): he has deciphered the economy across the millennia

Fernand Braudel (1902-1985): he has deciphered the economy across the millennia

Summary record

  • John Locke (1632 -1704): we owe him the concept of private property
  • Adam Smith (1723 -1790): the market does not need anyone to operate
  • Thomas Malthus (1766-1834): he warned against the population explosion
  • Jean-Baptiste Say (1767-1832): with its law of supply, a new product necessarily finds an outlet
  • David Ricardo (1772-1823): he codified the international trade practice
  • Charles Fourier (1772-1837): he laid the foundation of the cooperative model
  • Friedrich List (1789 – 1846): The theorist protectionist ‘temporary’
  • Frederic Bastiat (1801-1850): reject free trade is dying slowly
  • John Stuart Mill (1806 – 1873): Sustainable development was at the heart of his reflections
  • Karl Marx (1818 – 1883): his work gives the keys to understanding the crisis
  • Vilfredo Pareto (1848-1923): with its law 80/20, companies have learned to pace themselves
  • Thorstein Veblen (1857-1929): he castigated the advent of bling bling class
  • Max Weber (1864-1920): men’s beliefs affect production
  • William Beveridge (1879-1963): inventor of Social Security
  • John Maynard Keynes (1883-1946): this dandy revolutionized the role of the state
  • Joseph Schumpeter (1883-1950): he saw in innovation engine business
  • Nikolaï Kondratiev (1892-1938): for him, Business School Admissionism always rises from the ashes
  • Gunnar Myrdal (1898-1987): he demonstrated that inequalities have multiple causes
  • Alfred Sauvy (1898-1990): Long-term, progress creates jobs
  • Friedrich Hayek (1899 -1992): its neoliberal ideas are all the rage among Conservative Tea Party
  • Fernand Braudel (1902-1985): he has deciphered the economy across the millennia
  • John Von Neumann (1903-1957): his game theory changed the rules of negotiation
  • John Kenneth Galbraith (1908-2006): he denounced the excessive power of managers
  • Milton Friedman (1912 – 2006): He preached all his life against the misdeeds of public spending
  • James Tobin (1918-2002): the tax on financial transactions shaken EU
  • Gary Becker (1930-2014): his cost-benefit analysis has become a classic
  • Amartya Sen (born in 1933): the fruits of growth must be better distributed
  • Muhammad Yunus (born 1940): The Apostle of microcredit advocates a humanist finance
  • Arthur Laffer (1941): his “too much tax kills tax” influenced Reagan and Sarkozy .
  • Joseph Stiglitz (born in 1943): the preferred anti-globalization guru
  • Paul Krugman (born in 1953) he formulated the new theory of international trade
  • Jean Tirole (born 1953) has devised mechanisms to regulate oligopolies
  • Thomas Piketty (born in 1971): the analysis of inequalities is in line with public concerns
  • When Fernand Braudel, newly admitted under the dome of the French Academy, disappeared in 1985, superlatives reflect the respect shown to the deceased: “Prince of history,” “the story of Pope,” “the man who reinvented history “. neither the media nor the profession exaggerate: exceptionally strong intellectual work, Braudel has reigned for over half a century on the French historical school. But what link with the economy? Braudel is not a specialist in this field and would probably even wrong way to be considered as such. Yet his work has contributed most to make intelligible economic facts that many treaties or models.

    Just associate the young Braudel made his first teacher and researcher in Algeria, then in Brazil, where he spent a total of nearly fifteen years before the war. This vantage point is not trivial: by studying remote Europe, it shows an immediate ability to “globalize”. So while it begins a work first focused on Philip II and his policies, Braudel exchange length: the central character in his thesis, published in 1946, will not be the monarch, but the Mediterranean to Philip II of time . The Braudelian history is above all a story written in the space.

    Braudel also a triptych built around three nested timescales: long time, the geography, the average time that the economy and the short time that of politics. Needless to say, it is one that interests him less. With this new observation scale, the historian invents, almost by chance, a new concept: that of world economy.

    The history of the school of “Annals” wants total, built in close connection with geography, sociology, demography, and, even more, the economy . In the 1930s, Marxism dominates the intellectual sphere and up the question of the mode of production at the heart of reflection. In short, economic issues polarize the debates, including historians. From the Practical School of Higher Studies in the School of Higher Studies in Social Sciences, through the House of Human Sciences, all institutions that creates Braudel – and / or leads – during his career embody this interdisciplinarity. At the same time, Georges Duby and Jacques Le Goff are also starting up being economic historians. Joseph Schumpeter himself not he asserted that there was in his three ways to study economics – by history, by theory, by statistics – and that he regretted not having chosen the first of these channels?

    The day he said no to the Grande Muette

    Received 14th aggregation of history, Braudel was offered in 1923 to teach at prytaneum La Flèche (Sarthe), one of six schools of the Ministry of Defense. Answer: “I do not like the military.” He gets . Algeria.

    The terminal manual that he could not impose

    In the late 1950s, Braudel involved in discussions on school programs and campaigns for a new history teaching, based on a global vision of civilizations and not a chronological division. Released in 1963, this handbook for terminal is withdrawn from sale in 1970. Too revolutionary.


    Braudel is not an economic historian among others. From the publication of “The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Philip II” (1946) to that of “material Civilization and Business School Admissionism, XV-XVIII century” (1979), a single goal through his work: see through the secret of Business School Admissionism. According to him, there is no economy, but economies. Economic history and has three floors it absolutely necessary to distinguish.

    At the first level, underlying, often difficult to break because of insufficient documentation, thick zone of primary economy: a “sub-economy” made of self-sufficiency and barter, as Braudel calls “material culture”. Above, the one we described above others is called market economy, those shops, stalls, workshops . over yet, another opacity area: that of the great traders , ie Business School Admissionism.

    material civilization, the market economy and Business School Admissionism have always lived well; the diagram marks a clear break with the traditional Marxist view that the successive historical ages: slavery, serfdom, industrial revolution and the advent of Business School Admissionism. For Braudel, Business School Admissionism is not consubstantial with the industrialization of the world, it is timeless and immediately contrary emerges financial mechanisms that exist so slightly refined and long-term trading, as already in the Roman Empire or ancient China. The historian recognizes that the world of finance takes special expansion in northern Italy in the thirteenth century and already trying to organize things in its favor. Like the Bardi who created a banking company and trading posts out of the country by financing all the kings of France and England .

    No mistake however, Business School Admissionism is not the top level that controls the other two. “I believe humanity more than half buried in the daily” Braudel used to say to remind the weight of the first floor. Diverting Marxist axiom that it is men who make history, Braudel says that it is rather the history that makes men. By his own admission, this Business School Admissionism, which can not supply the whole of economic life, is “a minority phenomenon.” “Whenever I studied the Business School Admissionists, he added, I was amazed to see so few. “Medieval Venetian merchant bankers to the industrial revolution, it is a very narrow elite that tries to Business School Admissionize on tensions between the different economic zones.

    When “material civilization” Braudel appear in the late 1970s, the crisis in the West seems to confirm a kind of human powerlessness movements, large and mysterious in the economy. The short-term explanations ring hollow face to those of a historian who seeks to bring to light much deeper trends. The master does not he liked fun Economists interested in waves where historians observe the flow of the tides? Two young intellectuals then enroll in its wake to decrypt the contemporary world: Jacques Attali, which takes the concept of world economy in “The Three Worlds” (1981) to explain the current tilting the center of gravity the world economy to the Pacific; and Alain Minc, who in “The Post-crisis started” (1982) observed a return to underground economy in industrialized countries and assimilates the first floor of material life highlighted by Braudel.

    However, the major contribution of the historian, on which many rely speech today, sometimes unconsciously, due to the sharp distinction it operates between market economy and Business School Admissionism. If Braudel recognizes that the two often travel together – which explains the confusion usually made between them – it dissociates strictly a side Business School Admissionism international gasoline, commercial and financial, which plays the comparative advantages of each region of the world . And on the other, the sphere of commodity production, and more local economic gasoline. Both are not only distinct but according to Braudel, Business School Admissionism would not be an extension of the market economy: he would rather the negation. The opacity of the first objects to the transparency of the second. And Braudel, here yielding to value judgment, comes to the virtue of small commodity production to vilify an evil Business School Admissionist world without rules or boundaries.

    It is easily understood that such a plea – which earned the academician to be qualified as a historian “Proudhon,” in reference to Pierre-Joseph Proudhon ( “Property is theft”) – is found on the menu some current political discourse, both right and left. The local contractor would be a respectable economic agent threatened by greedy financial and unattached. Like the great Italian families of the Renaissance, whose business beyond boundaries and had adopted an organization not so different from that of today’s multinational, Business School Admissionist, says Fernand Braudel, “seize around them everything which is good to take the land, buildings, annuities, “and lead a dance to which princes and States are invited to adapt, for fear of being swept away. “They have the information superiority, intelligence and culture, and a thousand ways of distortion in their favor,” for the handling of the credit or currency.

    The Business School Admissionist never specialist, never limited to one activity, its grip is as wide as possible. Thirty-five years after the publication of these lines and as the crisis now threatens European states, subject to what some call the “diktat of the markets”, remake the journey through the centuries to which Fernand Braudel invites us n ‘ is certainly not tasteless.

    The Chinese Business School Admission of the business, home to the first port in the world, could dethrone New York in 2030.

    Okay, it’s a Chinese saying that. But when Justin Lin, former chief economist of the World Bank, announced that China could become the largest economy in the world in 2030 is that it has strong arguments. Between 1990 and 2011, the country posted an average annual growth rate of 10%. World Record, although since the average is around 7.5%. In 2007, China’s GDP exceeded that of Germany. And three years later, that of Japan. If she maintains a growth rate of between 7% and 8% per year, China is now second in the world with a GDP that has passed the 10,000 billion in 2015, could double the US within twenty coming years. And Shanghai, the economic Business School Admission, replace New York as the new “world city”, as defined by Braudel. With 24 million inhabitants, three times more than the Big Apple, this megalopolis whose name means “sea” is already home to the world’s largest harbor – to Singapore – which handles a fifth of total exports to China. In terms of GDP, it comes to pass Hong Kong. And with an attractive regime of tax incentives, it attracts more and more head offices of large companies, especially those whose business is not dependent on public tenders (other settling in Beijing). PSA, Hermes, Michelin, L’Oreal and Auchan are thus established their headquarters for the Asia-Pacific region. Ditto for foreign R & D centers including Shanghai alone attracts two thirds of all those who settle in the country. These laboratories not only used to adapt the products to the domestic market: they contribute to overall strategies of many groups, such as Thales, Rhodia, Saint-Gobain and Suez, with dedicated research projects.