Fernand Braudel (1902-1985): he has deciphered the economy across the millennia

Fernand Braudel (1902-1985): he has deciphered the economy across the millennia

Summary record

  • John Locke (1632 -1704): we owe him the concept of private property
  • Adam Smith (1723 -1790): the market does not need anyone to operate
  • Thomas Malthus (1766-1834): he warned against the population explosion
  • Jean-Baptiste Say (1767-1832): with its law of supply, a new product necessarily finds an outlet
  • David Ricardo (1772-1823): he codified the international trade practice
  • Charles Fourier (1772-1837): he laid the foundation of the cooperative model
  • Friedrich List (1789 – 1846): The theorist protectionist ‘temporary’
  • Frederic Bastiat (1801-1850): reject free trade is dying slowly
  • John Stuart Mill (1806 – 1873): Sustainable development was at the heart of his reflections
  • Karl Marx (1818 – 1883): his work gives the keys to understanding the crisis
  • Vilfredo Pareto (1848-1923): with its law 80/20, companies have learned to pace themselves
  • Thorstein Veblen (1857-1929): he castigated the advent of bling bling class
  • Max Weber (1864-1920): men’s beliefs affect production
  • William Beveridge (1879-1963): inventor of Social Security
  • John Maynard Keynes (1883-1946): this dandy revolutionized the role of the state
  • Joseph Schumpeter (1883-1950): he saw in innovation engine business
  • Nikolaï Kondratiev (1892-1938): for him, Business School Admissionism always rises from the ashes
  • Gunnar Myrdal (1898-1987): he demonstrated that inequalities have multiple causes
  • Alfred Sauvy (1898-1990): Long-term, progress creates jobs
  • Friedrich Hayek (1899 -1992): its neoliberal ideas are all the rage among Conservative Tea Party
  • Fernand Braudel (1902-1985): he has deciphered the economy across the millennia
  • John Von Neumann (1903-1957): his game theory changed the rules of negotiation
  • John Kenneth Galbraith (1908-2006): he denounced the excessive power of managers
  • Milton Friedman (1912 – 2006): He preached all his life against the misdeeds of public spending
  • James Tobin (1918-2002): the tax on financial transactions shaken EU
  • Gary Becker (1930-2014): his cost-benefit analysis has become a classic
  • Amartya Sen (born in 1933): the fruits of growth must be better distributed
  • Muhammad Yunus (born 1940): The Apostle of microcredit advocates a humanist finance
  • Arthur Laffer (1941): his “too much tax kills tax” influenced Reagan and Sarkozy .
  • Joseph Stiglitz (born in 1943): the preferred anti-globalization guru
  • Paul Krugman (born in 1953) he formulated the new theory of international trade
  • Jean Tirole (born 1953) has devised mechanisms to regulate oligopolies
  • Thomas Piketty (born in 1971): the analysis of inequalities is in line with public concerns
  • When Fernand Braudel, newly admitted under the dome of the French Academy, disappeared in 1985, superlatives reflect the respect shown to the deceased: “Prince of history,” “the story of Pope,” “the man who reinvented history “. neither the media nor the profession exaggerate: exceptionally strong intellectual work, Braudel has reigned for over half a century on the French historical school. But what link with the economy? Braudel is not a specialist in this field and would probably even wrong way to be considered as such. Yet his work has contributed most to make intelligible economic facts that many treaties or models.

    Just associate the young Braudel made his first teacher and researcher in Algeria, then in Brazil, where he spent a total of nearly fifteen years before the war. This vantage point is not trivial: by studying remote Europe, it shows an immediate ability to “globalize”. So while it begins a work first focused on Philip II and his policies, Braudel exchange length: the central character in his thesis, published in 1946, will not be the monarch, but the Mediterranean to Philip II of time . The Braudelian history is above all a story written in the space.

    Braudel also a triptych built around three nested timescales: long time, the geography, the average time that the economy and the short time that of politics. Needless to say, it is one that interests him less. With this new observation scale, the historian invents, almost by chance, a new concept: that of world economy.

    The history of the school of “Annals” wants total, built in close connection with geography, sociology, demography, and, even more, the economy . In the 1930s, Marxism dominates the intellectual sphere and up the question of the mode of production at the heart of reflection. In short, economic issues polarize the debates, including historians. From the Practical School of Higher Studies in the School of Higher Studies in Social Sciences, through the House of Human Sciences, all institutions that creates Braudel – and / or leads – during his career embody this interdisciplinarity. At the same time, Georges Duby and Jacques Le Goff are also starting up being economic historians. Joseph Schumpeter himself not he asserted that there was in his three ways to study economics – by history, by theory, by statistics – and that he regretted not having chosen the first of these channels?

    The day he said no to the Grande Muette

    Received 14th aggregation of history, Braudel was offered in 1923 to teach at prytaneum La Flèche (Sarthe), one of six schools of the Ministry of Defense. Answer: “I do not like the military.” He gets . Algeria.

    The terminal manual that he could not impose

    In the late 1950s, Braudel involved in discussions on school programs and campaigns for a new history teaching, based on a global vision of civilizations and not a chronological division. Released in 1963, this handbook for terminal is withdrawn from sale in 1970. Too revolutionary.

    ITS THEORIES

    Braudel is not an economic historian among others. From the publication of “The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Philip II” (1946) to that of “material Civilization and Business School Admissionism, XV-XVIII century” (1979), a single goal through his work: see through the secret of Business School Admissionism. According to him, there is no economy, but economies. Economic history and has three floors it absolutely necessary to distinguish.

    At the first level, underlying, often difficult to break because of insufficient documentation, thick zone of primary economy: a “sub-economy” made of self-sufficiency and barter, as Braudel calls “material culture”. Above, the one we described above others is called market economy, those shops, stalls, workshops . over yet, another opacity area: that of the great traders , ie Business School Admissionism.

    material civilization, the market economy and Business School Admissionism have always lived well; the diagram marks a clear break with the traditional Marxist view that the successive historical ages: slavery, serfdom, industrial revolution and the advent of Business School Admissionism. For Braudel, Business School Admissionism is not consubstantial with the industrialization of the world, it is timeless and immediately contrary emerges financial mechanisms that exist so slightly refined and long-term trading, as already in the Roman Empire or ancient China. The historian recognizes that the world of finance takes special expansion in northern Italy in the thirteenth century and already trying to organize things in its favor. Like the Bardi who created a banking company and trading posts out of the country by financing all the kings of France and England .

    No mistake however, Business School Admissionism is not the top level that controls the other two. “I believe humanity more than half buried in the daily” Braudel used to say to remind the weight of the first floor. Diverting Marxist axiom that it is men who make history, Braudel says that it is rather the history that makes men. By his own admission, this Business School Admissionism, which can not supply the whole of economic life, is “a minority phenomenon.” “Whenever I studied the Business School Admissionists, he added, I was amazed to see so few. “Medieval Venetian merchant bankers to the industrial revolution, it is a very narrow elite that tries to Business School Admissionize on tensions between the different economic zones.

    When “material civilization” Braudel appear in the late 1970s, the crisis in the West seems to confirm a kind of human powerlessness movements, large and mysterious in the economy. The short-term explanations ring hollow face to those of a historian who seeks to bring to light much deeper trends. The master does not he liked fun Economists interested in waves where historians observe the flow of the tides? Two young intellectuals then enroll in its wake to decrypt the contemporary world: Jacques Attali, which takes the concept of world economy in “The Three Worlds” (1981) to explain the current tilting the center of gravity the world economy to the Pacific; and Alain Minc, who in “The Post-crisis started” (1982) observed a return to underground economy in industrialized countries and assimilates the first floor of material life highlighted by Braudel.

    However, the major contribution of the historian, on which many rely speech today, sometimes unconsciously, due to the sharp distinction it operates between market economy and Business School Admissionism. If Braudel recognizes that the two often travel together – which explains the confusion usually made between them – it dissociates strictly a side Business School Admissionism international gasoline, commercial and financial, which plays the comparative advantages of each region of the world . And on the other, the sphere of commodity production, and more local economic gasoline. Both are not only distinct but according to Braudel, Business School Admissionism would not be an extension of the market economy: he would rather the negation. The opacity of the first objects to the transparency of the second. And Braudel, here yielding to value judgment, comes to the virtue of small commodity production to vilify an evil Business School Admissionist world without rules or boundaries.

    It is easily understood that such a plea – which earned the academician to be qualified as a historian “Proudhon,” in reference to Pierre-Joseph Proudhon ( “Property is theft”) – is found on the menu some current political discourse, both right and left. The local contractor would be a respectable economic agent threatened by greedy financial and unattached. Like the great Italian families of the Renaissance, whose business beyond boundaries and had adopted an organization not so different from that of today’s multinational, Business School Admissionist, says Fernand Braudel, “seize around them everything which is good to take the land, buildings, annuities, “and lead a dance to which princes and States are invited to adapt, for fear of being swept away. “They have the information superiority, intelligence and culture, and a thousand ways of distortion in their favor,” for the handling of the credit or currency.

    The Business School Admissionist never specialist, never limited to one activity, its grip is as wide as possible. Thirty-five years after the publication of these lines and as the crisis now threatens European states, subject to what some call the “diktat of the markets”, remake the journey through the centuries to which Fernand Braudel invites us n ‘ is certainly not tasteless.

    The Chinese Business School Admission of the business, home to the first port in the world, could dethrone New York in 2030.

    Okay, it’s a Chinese saying that. But when Justin Lin, former chief economist of the World Bank, announced that China could become the largest economy in the world in 2030 is that it has strong arguments. Between 1990 and 2011, the country posted an average annual growth rate of 10%. World Record, although since the average is around 7.5%. In 2007, China’s GDP exceeded that of Germany. And three years later, that of Japan. If she maintains a growth rate of between 7% and 8% per year, China is now second in the world with a GDP that has passed the 10,000 billion in 2015, could double the US within twenty coming years. And Shanghai, the economic Business School Admission, replace New York as the new “world city”, as defined by Braudel. With 24 million inhabitants, three times more than the Big Apple, this megalopolis whose name means “sea” is already home to the world’s largest harbor – to Singapore – which handles a fifth of total exports to China. In terms of GDP, it comes to pass Hong Kong. And with an attractive regime of tax incentives, it attracts more and more head offices of large companies, especially those whose business is not dependent on public tenders (other settling in Beijing). PSA, Hermes, Michelin, L’Oreal and Auchan are thus established their headquarters for the Asia-Pacific region. Ditto for foreign R & D centers including Shanghai alone attracts two thirds of all those who settle in the country. These laboratories not only used to adapt the products to the domestic market: they contribute to overall strategies of many groups, such as Thales, Rhodia, Saint-Gobain and Suez, with dedicated research projects.

    Health – Beauty: a bright future for all matters relating to the welfare

    Health – Beauty: a bright future for all matters relating to the welfare

    Surprise. We knew the French champions of Europe in the consumption of antidepressants, but they are also for beauty and care products. Another way to fight against the stress of everyday life, especially as current trends are natural, relaxation and cocooning. Although busy days require the “express” services also have the wind in their sails.

    Summary record

  • Food – food: huge potential in new forms of fast food and online sales
  • Health – Beauty: a bright future for all matters relating to the welfare
  • Leisure – culture still many unexplored niches
  • Fashion – decoration: an abundance of concepts to take abroad
  • High-tech: a multitude of new services to sell through the revolution of social networking and mobile Internet
  • Services for seniors: many veins under-exploited in this market booming
  • Surfing the wave of organic cosmetics

    A business specialists, cosmetic? Isabelle Carron, 48, and Arnaud Pigounides, 35, prove the opposite: initially, they are owners of a communications agency – and stayed. Their strategy deserves all the more to be studied. To start Absolution, they have relied on organic (Ecocert, recyclable packaging) and originality with a range of unisex products compatible with each other (this is far from always the case).

    No experts, but bûcheurs they worked a year and invested 300,000 euros: development of herbal recipes by a botanist, selecting a manufacturer to Aix-en-Provence (thank you Google), a supplier of tubes and pots at the show LuxePack . starting in September 2009, was made in specialty stores, Sephora, Marionnaud and other major retailers are inaccessible at first. After a fundraiser 200,000 euros, they seek 1 million to develop.

    Our advice: as did the creators of Absolution to be known professionals, it will be smart to rent a small stand (5,000 euros) in the renowned annual exhibition of cosmetics, Beyond Beauty in Paris.

    Being among the first to develop cosmetic treatments Express

    Party a few months on the campus of ESSEC in Singapore, Hugues de Braucourt discovered in the local metro QB House lounges, offering passersby pressed a haircut in ten minutes for 5 euros, without appointment. Returning to France in June 2009, the young man, still a student, decided to inspire the concept. To validate it, it will sound hairdressers in Paris, launching questionnaires on Internet forums (like that of Aufeminin.com) but also ask family, friends, students at her school .

    Reinforced his idea and joined by his sister, Diane Frachon, Hugh approach while commercial landlords to get a local not too expensive. Unibail offers to 30 square meters in the shopping center of Part-Dieu in Lyon. After collecting 100,000 euros from banks with the support of the Entrepreneurship Network Initiative and Paris, he opened his first hair salon and cheap express care Benow in December 2010. Six months later, the break is achieved.

    Our advice: in express service, the key is to be installed in high traffic locations (train, metro .). Another creator, Nicolas Langer and installs its Beauty Bubble Hair bubbles in airports and hypermarkets.

    Bring Asian relaxation centers and cheap relaxation

    When former co-creator of Monceau Fleurs launching a new business, it deserves attention. In 2007, Pascal Royer discovered in Spain Henartural, health care institutions where they are . the beds that massage the body. He contacted the suppliers, all South Korean, and discovered the extent of the market for automated relaxation – cheaper than the manual care – in Germany, Canada and the United States. After the low-cost flowers, why not massage at low prices?

    Several trips to Asia later to discover other amazing machines (massage arch, bathroom ionizing feet), this former Dauphine opened in December 2008 a first TheraCh’i Institute in Paris (300,000 euros invested). “Given the success, I declined the concept of duty,” he says. With seven stores, the network has now reached 1 million in sales.

    Our advice: precursor TheraCh’i is still alone in this market very fashionable, but expects the arrival of competitors. Note that the Spanish Henartural, he was inspired, is not present in France but could soon land there.

    Get a place, through franchising, the market for food stores

    One billion euros! The French market for weight loss is heavy. However not easy to create a concept to distinguish from increased competition in this sector, which includes both food supplements slimming treatments, books or coaching . So, it may be smart to incorporate a franchise expanding as Naturhouse.

    Present since 2005 in France, the Spanish manufacturer of food supplements, which sells its products in an original way, multiplies the openings “90 this year,” says Olivier Roques, former head of a high-tech company, who paid 200,000 euros for the masterfranchise (exclusivity) of the french market. Of course, we will not make a fortune with one shop. But, given the expansion of the chain, it is quickly possible to open more. “Our biggest franchisee has seven stores and carries 2 million in revenue.”

    Our advice: a dietician for advice and dietary supplements sold in stride. The principle of Naturhouse is quite simple to imitate. And there is room in the market .

    Using the Internet to sell personal development tips

    The niche of the wellness is not just to products and services for the body. There are also juicy business to achieve for who would take care of the mind. See Jean-Pierre Camard, 61, and France Hetier, 51. There are two years, the couple launched the website Jeconsulteunpsy.com. Neither one nor the other are the seraglio, him being a computer engineer and physiotherapist. “But we are passionate about psychology and have been in therapy before duplicate this concept very popular in England,” they confide.

    The principle ? Psychologists (initially canvassed in the alumni directory of the EPP, a reputable school in the profession), which the site retrocedes fees are available 24 hours 7 days 24 and 7. Before you contact them by phone , just check their availability on the site. The price of the consultation? 1 per minute. To build the computing platform, a budget of 130,000 euros was needed. A worthwhile investment: this year, sales should reach 800,000 euros. And Vivendi, which has a similar site, has already offered to buy them.

    Our advice: while the health professions are regulated, provide a service bringing together professionals from this sector does not require prior authorization. The future ? Sites of medical advice in all specialties. Moreover, Jean-Pierre and France Camard Hetier have just to start one .

    How far the company uberisation she going to go?

    How far the company uberisation she going to go?

    Better services for a lower price . It’s hard to believe but the recent decline in prices VTC service Uber, in response to new commercial offers Parisian taxi companies Taxis G7 and blue looking to regain lost customers, is an example among others of the ongoing revolution that crosses our economy, shaken by the Internet. The revolution of apps seem a boon to consumers. But it is likely to increase unemployment and job insecurity. This is what we should expect .

    See its Paris headquarters, a simple apartment of 200 square meters perched above a scooter dealer in the Sentier district, Creads we imagine that evil can shake the emperors of advertising. “In France, Publicis and Havas share the cake for too long. We must shake up! “, Yet swagger Julien Mechin, co-founder of the start-up of 40 employees. The secret of this 2.0 Robespierre to decapitate the multinationals? When agencies pay thousands of creative, it does not pay any. He simply created a network of 50,000 independent workers, advertisers (Citroën, La Poste .) can create competition in a few clicks and cost. “Only the ten best projects are paid and we keep half the profits,” said the boss. Last spring, 175 members of the community have been working on the name of a credit card to Societe Generale. First prize for the winner? 200 euros. A good example of uberisation.

    UBERISATION? This neologism FASHIONABLE  hides an economic tsunami. With the democratization of broadband, smartphones and geolocation, the crafty launch across new platforms online, usually applications that connect freelance workers and their clients without passing through conventional intermediate. These captains of industry of croqueurs generally remunerate the commission.

    Their models? Airbnb, the hotel became the world without hotels landlord (1.5 million rooms), and, of course, Uber, the application that changed the ultrareglemente taxi industry without wages to any driver and that investors now value as much as General Motors 51 billion. Many startups who dream to do as well! “In a third of investment requests I receive, the business model is based on the uberisation” says the serial investor Marc Simoncini, former creator of Meetic dating site.

    Transport, logistics, tourism, personal services, restaurants, bank and even the sex industry . This new form of activity is gaining ground like wildfire in almost all sectors. According to experts of Deloitte, who call the “economy on demand”, she should weigh 100 billion within three years. Certainly, his way is not drawn in advance, for the old economy did everything to defend against the invader. Uber and its drivers, for example, compete for months on every continent of stone throwing, strikes and lawsuits from California to France. But these rearguard skirmishes will only slow the movement irretrievably committed. “Soon, all intermediate worthless will be swept away,” says Stanislas de Bentzmann, president of Croissance Plus. Should we complain or rejoice?

    It all depends on which side one takes! From the perspective of the consumer, the uberisation is undoubtedly a boon. First, because the technology it sets in motion improves services. With the rating system and assessments in place on most platforms, for example, evaluation of the services is permanent, and this virtuous system sufficient to exclude immediately the bad.

    You were planning to rent out on Drivy wreck sleeping in your garage? You’d better give up! At the French leader in car rentals between individuals, all vehicles are systematically rated on a scale of one to five stars. And their owners valued the heading comment. “GDS available, accommodating, responsive . I highly recommend it,” says Julie, for example, about Gaël C, the individual who rented him a Renault Master van in Saint-Maur-des-Fosses (94). On the site of Drivy, design more intuitive than those of Avis or Hertz, even the average response time is listed lessor. Woe to those who place more than three hours to remind customers .

    BENEFIT TWO: THE PRICE.  “Our members pay an average of 6 cents per kilometer”, says Frederic Mazzella, the CEO of BlaBlaCar the European carpooling leader. Unbeatable! True, the prices of apps are not always more competitive than those charged by traditional players, but they have the merit of being almost always fixed in advance, limiting surprises.

    Done scam plumber who, under the pretext of calling urgently for a water leak case without taking the time to request a quote, the opportunity to rob your wallet! On Hellocasa, a 100% tricolor application that puts customers directly and professional network, all services – plumbing, painting, electrical, DIY, gardening – are set in advance and pass (from 69 euros per trip in Paris, a quarter of that amount due to the start-up). Same principle at Popmyday, a startup founded by two former HEC, offering home care (haircuts, manicures, makeup, etc.) seven days a week, from 7 am to 22 hours.

    Consumers also enjoy the benefits of geolocation, present on many of the applications. Without it, Deliveroo would never have been possible. This British nugget has established a network of 1,200 independent couriers (self-employed entrepreneurs, students, unemployed) to offer restaurants that do not have a delivery service to serve their customers home in their place. With a single glance at his smartphone, the hungry city can know in real time the location of the delivery and the distance that remains to be done. For its part, the restaurant, which has access to the same data, can monitor the command has arrived to before it cools. Same with Uber, Lecab or Driver-deprived: the hurried traveler is presented with real-time the location of the nearest saloon and the time it will take to pick him, without paying a penny more.

    Ultimate consumer benefit: the invasion of the barbarians on their territory strength traditional players to move. “To maintain their market share, they must absolutely be put at the startup that uberisent them,” says Jean-Marc Liduena, partner strategy and innovation at Deloitte monitor. Thus, the most affected sectors, such as hotels, make efforts on prices and some taxi drivers are beginning to offer water bottles to their customers. And the National Union of taxis is now lapping at the moment in the streets of Bordeaux an application on the model of Uber.

    FOR SOME EMPLOYEES IN POST,  by against the uberisation is very bad news. She rushes we indeed towards a world without CDI, where the Labor Code could become very quickly a scrap of paper. “Historically, the organization of vast scale production had always assumed the establishment of a business, gold is no longer necessary, “observes economist Jean Pisani-Ferry.

    Certainly the incredible flexibility of the new system will offer many opportunities for the unemployed and precarious languishing on the wrong side of the line. “Eventually, and if all goes ideally, technological change could allow everyone to become his own boss and work when and where it chooses. Marx’s dream after all! “Says the president of the liberal think tank GenerationLibre Gaspard Koenig. “Today, a mother who wants to work only when children are asleep can do it very easily,” adds the CEO of Crowd Factory, Daniel Benoilid. In a sense, this is good news because it will enable to blast the red line fracture in decades our labor market. The problem is that this social revolution is going to pay a high price for the millions of workers on the job.

    THERE WILL NOT BY FOUR PATHS:  currently, uberisation synonymous with insecurity. Not only new employees “independent” enjoy no guarantee, but they are often paid slingshot. It must be said that many of the tasks proposed by the apps are very lucrative.

    On the Amazon Mechanical Turk, for example, a platform that allows companies to delegate administrative tasks to users of crowds, the price is freely determined by the principal. This drives prices down. It must be said that the start-up self-imposed limitation of salaries (often 33,000 euros a year, the ceiling of the autoentreprenariat) for fear of their “employees” reclassified as employees. We should add that almost all of these shoots is not profitable: Airbnb is expected to lose $ 150 million this year and Uber three times. In bankruptcy, thousands of people will see their income melt!

    But there are more serious: the economy at the request could destroy many more jobs than it will not create. “Until now, innovation cycles had always helped offset the jobs destroyed. But this time the situation will change, “predicts Bruno Teboul, scientific director at Keyrus and coauthor of” Uberisation = torn Economy? “(Editions Kawa).

    Take the example of the bank. If the French lend money directly to each other through crowdfunding platforms (such Kisskissbankbank or LendingClub) and regulate all current operations (transfers, etc.) for dedicated applications, what the devil will serve them well tellers?

    The middle class will be the first to suffer from the situation. “In the US, the polarization of the world of work has already started and it’s disturbing,” alert Jean Pisani-Ferry. On one side US companies are struggling to attract the rarest profiles, on the other they outsource mass maximum tasks. So, there, one in three trim already freelance. “Most prefer to occupy well-paid and secure jobs,” recently lamented the former Labor Secretary Clinton, Robert Reich, for whom the appearance of these new jobs is a “nightmare”. No wonder across the Atlantic the uberisation be presented as a beacon on the upcoming presidential election.

    It is not still here with us. For now, our companies are rather . watch the trains. In a system where the first takes all ( “winner takes all”), the dominant platforms, often American, are rain or shine. Certainly we have a nice nugget: BlaBlaCar the carpool champion who lifted smoothly EUR 73 million last year to support its international expansion. “But this is an isolated case and, for the rest, we are still far away billions that collect startups Anglo-Saxon” observes Bruno Teboul.

    The explanation for this delay? Our heavy taxation, which cools the business hexagonal Angels, of course, the language barrier (most often, apps are first launched in French, which does not make things easier) and the difficulties of our engineers to communicate their ideas and to popularize.

    The funniest thing is that the solution may come from our good old traditional groups. Faced with the onslaught of startups, some have indeed chosen to throw into battle without fear of cannibalizing their business. To return the young hackers used to rent equipment from other sites like Zilok, Mr. Bricolage has launched its own case for example of tool lending between individuals, Ladepanne.fr. Even SNCF uberise! Since she offered 75% stake in the private car rental Ouicar (number 2 in France behind Drivy, with 400,000 members), all guests can take advantage of car sharing. Beware, Yankees, we come!

    – Taxis: In Paris, Uber has dynamited the market

    Within months, Uber, or Lecab Heetch were old-hat taxis of the Business School Admission. They operate more than 10,000 vehicles.

    Gain for the consumer: Smiling water bottle, impeccable car price known in advance, less waiting, geolocation vehicle that picks you up . The new services have advantages. The price, it may be lower or higher, depending on demand.

    Social consequences:  As Uber has no plate to pay for its vehicles, occupation denounces unfair competition. The Uberpop Service (anyone can improvise driver with own car) has, meanwhile, been banned.

    – Sex: Always the peep show . but home!

    Done dubious clubs where you enter hugging the walls. Now, striptease fans can see live shows offered by pros or madams All-the-World on their screen via specialist websites.

    Gain for the consumer:  more comfortable, cleaner, quieter, the system has two flaws. Online strippers do not appear in the flesh. And at 4 euros per minute, the score can rise very quickly.

    Social consequences: Student or not shy household can earn 250 euros per hour. But the sites often conceal plants call girls in Eastern Europe, where girls are exploited shabbily.

    – Credits: No need for bank to borrow

    New platforms, such Unilend or Ready Dunion, put in special relationship or SMEs who want to borrow with those who can pay.

    Gain for the consumer:  Everyone wins. Lenders often pocketing best interests to market. Borrowers themselves, are funded more quickly and easily, without having to provide many guarantees. Crowdfunding mechanisms (grants) can also take over when banks refuse projects.

    Social consequences: All the traditional banking activities are questioned. Eventually, thousands of jobs could be threatened.

    – Delivery: Anyone can improvise steeds

    A meal to be delivered? A package to file? With Deliveroo Toktoktok or more need professional couriers. These are individuals who do the work.

    Gain for the consumer:  More flexibility, more rapid (32 minutes on average for Deliveroo), a smaller bill and the ability to track their parcel GPS: These new apps are any benefits for the customer. And as the carriers are noted, they work well!

    Social consequences: This service will enable thousands of students, unemployed or precarious to earn up to 25 euros per hour. By cons, it may weaken hundreds of courier companies.

    – Creative Tasks: Soon the end of the advertising agencies?

    Slogan to find, logo drawing . In recent months, the sites put human order of donors with a network of thousands of independent creative. The offer is open to everyone, everyone is free to respond.

    Gain for the outsourcer: No more heavy and opaque billing agencies! With this system, benefits can cost a hundred times cheaper. Societe Generale has thus offered a new credit card name . 400 euros!

    Social consequences: Advertising Agencies and com going to leave feathers. The creative also because only the winner of the tender is paid. The others work for nothing.

    – rental or lending of objects: Between individuals, it’s cheaper!

    Many sites like Zylok, Ilokyou or Lamachineduvoisin offer individuals to rent (or lend) their tools, their equipment and household appliances. They are increasingly popular.

    Gain for the consumer:  The system is more flexible and significantly less expensive than traditional rental companies. But beware of scams, frequent these sites. The rating system and comments, which can rule dishonest users, should contribute to the household.

    Social consequences: In time, equipment rental companies could cut thousands of jobs.

    – Administrative tasks: Small hands free at all times

    Ranking files, SEO, screening opinion ironic . These very low-skilled microtasks but impossible with software, will be increasingly outsourced. Sites like Crowd Factory offer to entrust them to thousands of volunteer individuals. Just that they have a screen.

    Gain for the outsourcer:  More flexibility and substantial savings.

    Social consequences: The system allows thousands of people in need to supplement their income easily (up to 3,000 euros per month). But it goes a little more precarious unskilled workers.

    And other areas are also affected: 

    Video Content  By allowing everyone to share and monetize their videos, YouTube was the first paved the way for the uberisation.

    Home Services  The apps Hellocasa or Popmyday offer home staff for almost all tasks (plumbing, hairdressing, etc.).

    Law  The legal advice startups popping up on the web and offer quick fixes.

    Clothing  Several sites offer to individuals to exchange clothes.

    Tourism  The Airbnb, HomeAway, HomeExchange dynamite and other hospitality already.

    Food  It is possible to sell part of the dinner we cooked at home, through, among others, the Super-pot site.

    IT: the pros of cloud and big data will be popular

    IT: the pros of cloud and big data will be popular

    > Web and Mobile Developer: work with a shovel, but for young people

    By opening last year its own computer school, Xavier Niel did not hide it: we do not train enough programming specialists with regard to business needs. New players the Net and lack of talent perfectly mastering the languages ​​used to design websites (Java, .Net .) or applications for mobile phones and tablets (Android, iOS .). This shortage will persist in the coming years. But beware: this business is primarily reserved to young graduates, especially bac + 5, – “they represent 95% of our recruitment,” said Dominique Galet, Talent & Trust – even if the tray + 3 chances in smaller companies. Web developers will have no trouble adjusting to the language of the mobile world. It will be complicated by cons for those who have worked on software design “traditional”. Another handicap is the salary they will be competing with recent graduates hired around 30 000 to 35 000 per year.

    > Web Designer: a well-known profession that will remain in the future bearer

    If the site of the new perfume Paco Rabanne got last November Awwwards the prestigious international award for the best web creation, it owes to the one who designed the web designer. A job that certainly is not new, but will remain buoyant: first, because brands looking to get noticed more and more on the web with original sites. Then, because they must also give their image on smaller screens (thus less readable) tablets and smartphones. According to research firm Katalyse is one of the professions in the sector – often practiced freelancing – expected to grow the most in five years. Recruiters are increasingly demanding and require both specialized skills in graphics and programming language, but also animation and video. Designers graduates of art schools that do not possess this computer knowledge therefore must acquire continuing education if they are to have a serious chance to retrain.

    > UX Designer: aces ergonomics are sought

    A site that is beautiful is good. But a clear site and where it is easy to navigate, it’s even better. This is the work of webergonome or UX designer. A particularly sensitive issue for commercial sites, that could quickly see flee users if their interface is too complicated. The pros and speak of “user experience” (UX English) positive or negative. Well known in the USA for several years, the profession in France is more recent. Besides there is still no specific training, apart from being ergonomics in some curriculum webdesign. “So, people with a double degree, humanities and webdesign are appreciated,” says Sacha Kalusevic, recruitment firm Page Personnel. In addition to traditional graphic designers, other experienced candidates may also succeed: General psychologists or ergonomists, provided, of course, to acquire the skills and necessary Internet marketing. And knowing that this business practice is more independent consultant that employee in a communication agency.

    > Cloud Engineer: clear sky for these pros of online data storage

    You store your family photos on a website rather than in thick albums at home? Without knowing it, you are using cloud computing (literally cloud computing). This hosting remote data system, easily accessible through the Internet, also enjoyed great success with companies who can outsource much of their IT. Good news for data center companies, but also service providers who gravitate. The cloud computing market, which already weighs 2 billion euros in France should indeed grow 20% annually by 2020, according to research firm International Markess. By cons, this success is a danger to all the engineers responsible for administering systems in business, they have less and less need of their services. Hence the importance for them to master the new environment. The profession is very young, few engineering schools have already launched continuous training, the Isep in Paris being one of the first to have done last year. Even rarity in initial training. This is probably just the beginning. Note that at the exit of the school cloud engineers can claim higher earnings of 10 to 15% compared to a system engineer classic profile (from 37 000 to 42 000 after two years of experience ).

    > Data scientist: this data hunter dimension

    The numbers are staggering: every minute in the world, more than 2 million queries are performed on Google, 280,000 messages are sent on Twitter and more than 1.5 billion pieces of content shared on Facebook. This colossal mass of information available on the Web is a gold mine for businesses and in particular for their marketing services. Must still be able to analyze these big data, these very different kind of data and not always well structured. It is the job of data scientist, who will be able through complex algorithms to extract database information relevant to better understand customer behavior. Which will subsequently marketing departments to provide better targeted offers. “We have to be good in both computer science and statistics, but also understand the challenges of its business,” said Pascal Bizzari, the consulting firm datamining Avisia. employer side, in addition to consulting firms, pure players of the Web (Amazon, Vente-privee.com .), but also banks and telecom operators are increasingly interested in these profiles. And this will continue, as consumers increasingly communicate with their favorite brands through multiple channels. Result, a career transition for engineers or financial is perfectly possible, especially as the function is well paid, with salaries exceeding 75,000 euros for very experienced profiles.

    > Cyber Security Engineer: recruiters lack of these specialists

    If there is a thrilling profession hacking scandal of the NSA, it is that engineers cybersecurity. As a publicity stunt, hard to beat. industrial espionage, fraud, viruses or hacking hackers, companies are increasingly subject to cyber attacks. And it will not work out, their networks are becoming more open and accessible via the Net, so vulnerable. To protect themselves, they will need to strengthen their cyber defense teams. Not to mention the many specialized companies in the sector as Cassidian (EADS subsidiary), Thales, Sogeti and Atos. However, according to Senator Bockel’s report in 2012, the current training only cover a quarter of recruitment needs, estimated at 1,000 per year, including 800 in the private. It is true that the specialized courses in school or college are still few in initial or continuing training. An interesting trail to follow, therefore, for students, but also for experienced system engineers who want to refocus and aim later positions responsible computer security (RSSI).

    > IF Planner: recurring needs in large groups

    A village does not need a planner. A city, though. Well, for the information systems (IS) is the same. Only large groups (particularly in banking, telecom and industry) and consulting firms employ these professionals, also known as business architects. Their job? Plan and develop computer of their business or their customers, according to the needs and technological innovations. The positions are so few. But these experts will be especially popular as systems become more complex every day (cloud computing, business intelligence). The function requires both a strong technical background and a good knowledge of the Company’s businesses which will be affected by its decisions. That is an interesting career move for system and network engineers with good experience in server management.

    Here to conclude this series, not a new profession itself, but a methodology called “agile”, the IT project managers are urged to know. “It is increasingly required in the CV,” says Dominique Pebble associated Talent & Trust recruitment firm. The goal is to work more quickly and collegially with the customer, proceeding by successive adjustments: hence the term “scrum”, meaning “mixed” in English. Example. When a publisher designing software for a client, it first establishes with him all the features of the product. Then teams engage in a sprint to deliver as quickly as possible a first piece, the customer will be tested immediately. “If there are no bugs, the developers move to another feature, without returning to the previous” says Claude Aubry, a consultant specializing in the field. Advantages ? This method can be adapted more finely to customer demand. The employees in turn are motivated by a more participatory management. Many computer schools already sensitize their students to this process in their course of software engineering. If project managers already working interest will be trained in this area.

    In the kitchens of the Quai d’Orsay: excellence in French

    At the Foreign Ministry, a team continues the tradition of gastronomy and service to the French. Tour in the label temple.

    On the surface, the Foreign Ministry shining golds of the Republic. Yet past the different state rooms, a staircase leads to a less flashy but equally strategic basement. In the kitchen, in fact, the polished floor gives way to a black and white tiles and gilded ceilings with exposed pipes.

    In this simple and functional decor leads a prestige battle in which the requirement level must be up to the professional mission assigned to the team representing France and its good manners with guests from the Quai d’Orsay. This requirement applies to all members of the staff: the twenty cooks and clerks, but also to the two seamstresses, both bankers and six butlers that provide room service.

    Marc Chaumeil for Management

    CHOREOGRAPHY ball.  Each year, approximately 60,000 meals are served in the ministry. “As much at Crillon, on the other side of the Seine, explains Thierry Charrier, the chef. I make sure that every member of my team has the will to achieve perfection, even when it comes to preparing the 150 to 200 daily meal trays for staff. “If unlike his colleagues who come toques greet their guests, he remains a man of the shadows, it shares with them a commitment to excellence.

    In the back stairs that leads to the reception rooms, the whereabouts of the trays are relentless. Les six butlers lead this ballet with tremendous efficiency, rivaling discretion and propriety. Their goals? Valuing dishes accompany the meal by forgetting their presence while respecting the letter the French service that requires a ball choreography. The dishes are presented on the left and served by the right, while the guests serve themselves using cutlery highlighted.

    Tables set with care protocol: Butlers and seamstresses start preparing the room in the morning, well before the arrival of the guests. The layers are deposited neatly and ironed on the huge coffee table Beauvais. The cover can then be arranged maintaining a distance of 30 to 50 centimeters between two plates.

    Every detail counts: the teeth forks side table, an additional share provided in case of greedy guest . an unknown protocol of the public, which may seem a bit outdated. Never mind ! Other departments are all put to plate service – deemed more modern -, the Foreign Ministry is indeed the last defense of this tradition dating back to the eighteenth century.

    The Quartermaster General of the Ministry, Thierry Bouron, has made it his mission on behalf of his employer, France. “Only the Elysee continues to practice this service sporadically. We are the last ministry to respect the everyday and the only ones able to perpetuate the tradition, “confirms this fifties who, before arriving at the Quai d’Orsay in the 1980s, did his military service in private service former President Valery Giscard d’Estaing.

    TRAINEE DIP.  Today, as a steward general, he is responsible for scheduling the team and juggles rooms, culinary requests and needs of each guest. To provide the ultimate luxury for staff and guests of the prestigious Foreign Ministry – custom receptions – it relies on an assistant who oversees the butlers.

    Thierry Bouron is also the Compliance and transmission of the label and the service French. “Each year we welcome a professional quarantine from all the embassies of France in the world. These trainees – waiters or cooks – find themselves immersed for five days, “he says, putting his cup of tea on a British glass below.

    A similar logic to that of a large group that receives the seat frames its subsidiaries . “We are a little home mother of French gastronomy. We help our satellites abroad up competence, “says chef Thierry Charrier, whose office door is decorated with postcards sent around the world by former trainees.

    In this week of January, the chef of the Embassy in Georgia has been replaced by Evgenia Szoeva, butler in Bulgaria. His first day was devoted to observing the work of silversmiths, who watch over a national treasure – two services Sevres particular, kept in a secret location as their value is priceless.

    Silver and porcelain of the Republic: Crockery Bernardaud, Christofle silverware and crystal St. Louis. The must of tableware, 100% made in France.

    Today, for the first fiscal sized, Evgenia serves breakfast from 8 am 30 gathering about a hundred ambassadors in the dining room, at the monthly meeting of the Club of Entrepreneurs. An intervention of Sebastien Bazin, CEO of Accor, is scheduled this morning. “After six years at the embassy in Sofia, I just observe what is done here, learn some practices, including service to the French,” she says in halting franglais.

    impeccable service in the kitchen and in the living rooms: In the kitchen, the tenors of the trade that display years in great restaurants, alongside disabled employees and those undergoing conversion (including a former professional football player).

    The Minister of Foreign Affairs, Jean-Marc Ayrault, is served by butlers.

    ZEST FOR INNOVATION.  After the first service, Evgenia Szœva prepares lunch Matthias Fekl, Secretary of State for Foreign Trade, Promotion of tourism and French overseas . and object of attention since he came kitchen to congratulate the team for their kouign-amann with apples.

    For if the brigade continues the tradition by serving classic recipes, it seeks nevertheless to surprise. Welcoming foreign students contributes by blowing on this venerable house, guardian of tradition, a light breeze innovation.

    FOR YOUR BREAKFAST BUSINESS, THREE RULES ETIQUETTE:

    1. Quiet and advance.  Choose a bit noisy and convenient place for your host (not too far from his place of work). And ask about her tastes. This will prevent you to invite in a meat restaurant while he is vegetarian .

    Arriving a few minutes early, you will ensure that the table for you and let your guest room that faces the room.

    2. Discreetly.

    The ideal is to prevent – at the time of booking – it is you who will pay. And, if you do not pay the bill, never offer to share. Finally, send a thank you to the shared moment.

    3. Pace.  The duration of a meal should not exceed one hour and a half. To keep this timing, enter the heart of the subject upon entry.

    Undertake abroad: they did!

    Undertake abroad: they did!

    They left everything behind almost to start their business to thousands of kilometers from France. From Copenhagen to Sausalito, here are three examples.

    ERIC VINCENT, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    Denmark, the little kingdom of which little is heard, located two hours from Paris, has always fascinated me. “For Eric Vincent, 44, married with 4 children, settle in the land of Vikings is needed early obvious. This original Nantais stayed there once when the opportunity presents itself: after a chef CAP, he went to prepare a degree in nutrition and dietetics for three and a half years. Then he tried his luck in Guadeloupe, in London and Reunion from 1992 to 1994, but to no avail: Denmark is the only place where he sees flourish. He dropped anchor in Copenhagen in 1995, “with a backpack” for any luggage.

    Restorer of “national education” in Copenhagen, Denmark DR

    Two decades later, he still plague “against the lack of light in winter,” he absolutely no regrets. After teaching at the hotel school in the Business School Admission from 2000 to 2003, in international section, he bought The National Education in 2004, “a classic and authentic French bistro” of old Copenhagen, instead of meeting place of the community French since 1992. a successful challenge which led him to open a grocery store two years later – Education Gourdmand’is – closed in 2008 in favor of a cozy wine bar, the Corkscrew.

    Two restaurants and a food truck. Today, Eric is a happy restaurateur at the head of a big deal. Fourteen employees, “mostly French, especially in the kitchen, to stick to the restaurant’s image,” and a turnover in constant increase. Yet it was not won, “Faced with the refusal of the bank to grant us a loan, we had to mortgage the house of my in-laws!” Well that undertaking is simple and encouraged in Denmark – “get a visa work prerequisite to launch poses no difficulty “- a Business School Admission guarantee is required at time of registration -” it amounted to 17,000 euros. ”

    Apart from this requirement a bit restrictive, the country “the happiest in the world” according to the World Happiness Report 2016 (World Happiness Report) is a paradise for ambitious. “While speaking Danish is more, even a necessity in some cases, everyone practice English, which facilitates relations, says Eric. And living here is fantastic, I fully adheres to the Danish social model, based on a supportive community that advocates for change things. For this reason, I suggest staying much longer, until the end of my days maybe. “In the meantime, another project could emerge in the form of a food truck in Copenhagen.

    His advice

    “Before starting a business, a small room is needed. The Danish market is not big and it has its codes, its specificities that must be mastered before rushing. Notice to new technology buffs: there is strong demand in the sector. “

    The National Education in Brief

    This French bistro “classic” offers quality cuisine using fresh, traditional French cuisine and wines and spirits just as French ( “neither Coke nor Carlsberg, yet national drink”), and a worthy decoration “old” bistros.

    Seat: Copenhagen.

    Created: redemption in 2004 (the establishment since 1992).

    Associates: 2, “with my wife.”

    Employees: 14.

    Key numbers: 1.15 million euros in turnover this year, “an average increase of 10% since 2004”.

    Initial investment: 17,000 euros.

    Jonathan Kieusseian, 28, defines himself as a “serial entrepreneur,” motivated by “innovation and the sharing of experiences.” It is also a “serial traveler” who has studied all over the world before foothold in Burma. Between 2006, the year of his entry into the pole Leonardo da Vinci (Defense), and 2015, this marketing expert off and online made his first internship in London in a media agency, lived in Sweden as part of an exchange Erasmus made a voluntary two years in Ivory Coast, the Orange Technocentre in Abidjan, and obtained a Master Strategy and Management of International Business from ESSEC on the Singapore campus before joining campus ‘EGADE Business School in Mexico City! “The difference is such between the image of a country that the media refer, sometimes friends, and reality, I prefer to form my own opinion.”

    Complicated, but not insurmountable. Open mind, deep faith in humanity and remarkable academic background: it was the subtle and perfect alchemy to launch in Myanmar, new home for the more adventurous expatriates. “Burma is one of the last countries or yet to be built, a bit like in those countries of the former Soviet Union – such as Armenia, the homeland of my ancestors – who discovered a world full of opportunities overnight, welcomes Jonathan.

    I saw something incredible, because the lives of 50 million people changing almost daily! Similarly, the delay in the country allows it to draw on best practices from neighbors and not to repeat their mistakes. “But the road is long and bumpy. Despite democratic elections in November 2015 and the introduction of a more liberal government, the situation remains unstable “. Better be ready to leave the country quickly if serious events occurred”

    Moreover, the cultural gap, administrative inertia and corruption are all obstacles to overcome for those wishing to settle. “Starting a business is not easy and takes time. Passage required to file the articles and be “seen” banks must join two Burmese, then pay a lawyer between 5,000 and 10,000 euros for administrative procedures, and have a letter of invitation from a company already registered in Burma to stay more than twenty-eight days duration of the tourist visa. “Not enough to thwart the ambition of the young boss. Jonathan is both confident in his project, a teleshopping channel (TV and Internet) combined with a home product delivery service, and proud of its 100% local team: “We, ensures t- it, the means to become a pillar in importing quality products to improve the lives of Burmese. “

    His advice

    “While learning about the target industry. Burma – Rangoon in particular – attracts more and more foreign investors. To know the expectations of the market, Facebook and websites enable groups to interact with expats already present for some time. Not to mention the French Institute, also very active. “

    Myanmar direct express

    A string of TV shopping and home delivery service. “In Burma, the demand for consumer goods is growing, or many cheap products sold are bad bill, even dangerous to health. We intend to make a difference by importing quality products certified by the manufacturer and local departments concerned, with a guaranteed offer for the customer, and home delivery for simplicity “.

    Headquarters: Yangon (Rangoon).

    Created: January 2016.

    Associates: 2. Employees: 5.

    Key figures: 20,000 customers at the end of the first year.

    Services offered: “I join a company that is created to launch the first TV shopping channel Burma, on television and on the Internet and offer exclusive products – from the solar lamp in the kitchen appliance – to the population. I ride parallel electric bicycle delivery business products marketed on the Internet by third parties. ”

    Key dates: January 2016, the company’s creation. Mars first sale through TV shopping and e-commerce. April purchases of the first electric bikes from Japan.

    Initial investment: “Our Business School Admission and money lent by our families, complemented by the contribution of Singaporean investors.”

    JEROME TRICAULT AND TRIBE, SAUSALITO (USA)

    Inventor of Magicbed, a cot that folds and unfolds in a snap, Jerôme Tricault is the first surprised when he learned that the United States issue him a visa 01, reserved for “exceptional talent”. Cautious still, Jerome, his partner, Emmanuel Sordoillet, and their wives, in San Francisco will identify places. Thunderbolt: Two months later, the entire families – seven children in all – arrived in Sausalito. “They were not hot at first, but today only one of them still wants to go.”

    In their suitcases, Jerome and Emmanuel outweigh Pictyear an iPhone app that creates collaborative photo books, they are working on for six months. “It interested me more than going Magicbed sale,” said Jerome. The magic bed but allowed them to start their business. In September 2014, they hire developers and canvass the major Silicon Valley. “Here, create a business is a sport.” In early January, the pair raise $ 1 million, and in May, Pictyear is one of the “App Stores” European. Jerome is delighted: “Life is very different from what we had in Bordeaux. But there is an irreplaceable energy. “

    An MBA to become a manager?

    An MBA to become a manager?

    Career Accelerator, the Master of Business Administration, MBA sigle enables executives engaged in professional life to complete their training in the areas of management, economics, human resources, finance and languages ​​to access to the most senior positions. But disappointed argue that the benefits of solid gold (or so) of the MBA are not always the rendezvous. The MBA market, however, continues to flourish, with nearly 250 programs in France alone, some of which are recognized worldwide. MBA from INSEAD in Fontainebleau, even topped the ranking MBA 2016 Financiel Times. Much further, we find the MBA of HEC School of Management Grenoble (EM) and Hedeč Grenoble.

    The MBA landed in France in 1957 by the European Institute of Business Administration says INSEAD, which creates, in our country, the first training for professional purposes very high level. This MBA, based in Fontaibebleau, has a global impact: first, it is important teaching methods in force in the American business schools, turned mainly to practice while in France the education is still highly theoretical . Immediately, the MBA is displayed as a highly selective training since it takes particular fluently speak several languages ​​and justify several years experience at high level.

    Twenty years later, in 1969, HEC (Hautes Etudes Commerciales) creates, in turn, an MBA who meets the same success. Next came those of ESSEC and ESCP.

    Today the MBA schools are resolutely internationally oriented with “students” who come from all countries and trainings that take place both in France and abroad.

    MBA democratized but sometimes “demonetized”

    Long, the MBA was displayed as the path to excellence, reserved for an elite with substantial financial resources, an MBA can cost as much as a finely crafted apartment.

    Things have changed. The MBA has ceased to be the preserve of schools. Universities also offer MBA course fee but much cheaper, as small private schools without anyone ever know if the quality is at the rendezvous.

    In a study published two years ago, XERFI an economic analysis firm noted that the MBA remains a growth market, but characterized by rough marketing strategies. Main complaint: the vast majority of institutions offer their MBA to a global audience when we should finely target a specific category of applicants and target specialization.

    The positioning of excellence is, according to this study, present and relevant only for a small minority of institutions. Despite reservations, the majority of those who have an MBA in a side institution stated that “worth” and do not regret the financial effort.

    While the MBA has been democratized to become accessible for deep pockets. But it must still count from 70,000 to 100,000 euros for a year of education in high schools, half in universities.

    If training tempts you, consider partial funding of MBA using your individual right to training (DIF), now training the personal account (CPF). Some Fongecif these agencies managing the funds of the vocational training of employees, give some financial help to pay part of the MBA, the rest of the price may be subject to credit from his bank. Nor is forbidden to apply for funding to your employer and OPCA, the approved joint body which the cash contribution to the formation caused by companies.

    In all cases, ensure that the MBA is considered registered in the national directory of professional certifications (RNCP). Some large schools offer young people under 26 years old MBA alternately, but space is limited.

    Gastronomy: the madness of home chefs

    Gastronomy: the madness of home chefs

    Afford the services of a chef to entertain guests? A concept booming for three years and not necessarily ruinous.

    Normally, it’s my wife who cooks. For his birthday, I wanted it to be at the table “The solution to succeed his surprise, they are friends of François Yung, special advisor to entrepreneurs, who have blown him. A home cook . “It happened to 10 am with its bowls and cans, filled the basket. I set the table and he took care of everything. He advised me to wine and it made the service. When he left after sharing champagne with us, the kitchen was clean. “

    The birthday luncheon that amazed his friends will cost her 40 euros per person, without leaving the living room. For three years, this service has developed in France, and platforms are created on the Internet to link customers and professionals. About 2 500 independent cooks exert now a private chef activities in France. In question, the French regained appetite for eating well without them necessarily have the time or talent to cook. And “with” Top Chef, “” MasterChef “and” An almost perfect dinner “, this formula looks more and more people,” says Stephen Leguillon, founder of Beauty Plate, a site that allows online reservation benefits culinary.

    On its site, it offers the services of 55 chefs, all selected after a test dinner. These hats are free to set their prices, their conditions and their recipes, like Adib Kaddoura, a cook who offers menus ranging from 44 to 87 euros per person. In exchange, they are returning a 12% commission the company to Stephen Leguillon, which also provides them with assistance in managing their accounts.

    A key, an average income of 2,000 euros per month for the elect, that they leave school or a starred establishment. The start-up has already organized several fundraisers to 100 000 and is preparing a new round bringing French investors, but also British and American.

    With a first menu at 75 euros per person, Dinners Eloise aim, them wealthy clients looking to combine fine dining and privacy of the home. An initial investment of EUR 300 000 and seven employees or associates leaders all went through the starred restaurants, enabled the company to achieve 1 million in revenue this year.

    In Reims, Denis Spitz has also specialized in high cuisine and full service home services, for companies or individuals. Among its regulars, the champagne houses Veuve Clicquot or Bollinger. It comes to you to define your menu (35 to 95 euros) and can, on the day, you prepare carpaccio St. Jacques on a mashed avocado, lime vinaigrette and fresh basil, or trifle with strawberries and ricotta mousse with pink biscuits of Reims. It can also, for 130 euros more, bringing his butler, to perfect service.

    The professionals also see in this new market a way to gain their independence. At 26, Frederic Moulin worked in the most prestigious kitchens of France: Guy Savoy, Paul Bocuse and Le Grand Vefour. “My goal is to open my restaurant, so I became chief in a traditional, then I started freelance. We are obliged to calculate all our ratios, ourselves we buy our products. This is an excellent school, “he says. His meals at home, between 55 and 200 euros per guest, also allow it to be a nice address book: he recently cooked for the pastry chef Pierre Herme or owners of ST Dupont lighters.

    But the concept is not restricted to an elite. At 20, Theophile Playoust offers menus at 36 euros per person. “I started through my parents, friends, network,” says the young man who, after two years of hotel school, did not exercise in a restaurant. Through its Facebook page and word-of-mouth, he made two to three services a week and already earns up to 4,000 euros per month.

    Over time, Theophilus saw broaden its customer base. “Many young people call me for dinner with friends at home. Not necessarily wealthy, but are fun. “In short, no need to go to the restaurant, now, is the restaurant that comes to you.

    Pick subsidies for your training

    Pick subsidies for your training

    The funding mechanisms available to companies are numerous and they follow complex procedures. Our advice to knock on the right doors and treat your application files.

    Companies on average spend 3% of their payroll on training their employees. This is more than the legal minimum. Which varies with the size of the companies: 0.55% for the structures of less than 10 employees, 1.5% between 10 and 19 individuals and up to 1.6% from 20 employees. But in a recession, the management is trying to close the tap and to stick to that threshold. According Cegos, 40% of companies have also tightened the budget in 2009. bad reflex. Training is one of the most proven ways to prepare a crisis. Employers would most harm especially to miss that multiple devices can contribute to its funding.

    Priority populations

    First possibility: seek joint body authorized collector (OPCA) of your industry. Each of these structures (there are 90) freely determine its attribution rules: amount of supported, type and duration of the actions prioritized, direct payment at the training organization or reimbursement to the company, etc. This is the OPCA which defines, early in the year, the number of files that can make a company, in proportion to its numbers.

    This organization (which deals only with individual folders) gives in principle priority to certain risk populations considered: employees over 40 years and with twenty years of professional activity, those who have not benefited from training for more three years, returns of elective office, maternity or parental leave, workers with disabilities. A company needs an accountant who can not afford to recruit may well offer an executive assistant skills training, the cost will be supported. The projects developed under the individual right to training (DIF) can also be subsidized (an OPCA on two proposed).

    For such an application to be successful, must still meet certain conditions. The duration of training first of all: to thirty-five to seventy hours per person minimum (as agencies), with a ceiling of three hundred hours. In other words, no less than five to ten days, imperatively programmed alternately. The course theme should be linked to the main business of the company. As for the amount allocated, it depends on Opca. The less well-off (associations, agricultural, medical) limit its funding to € 9.15 per hour of training. The richest (metallurgy, artistic professions, studies and consulting) go up to 50 euros. Needless to negotiate These rates are set by the social partners.

    Future restructurings

    For projects of greater magnitude, especially for group shots, please contact the region, to the state or to Europe. Their grants may cover 20% to 80% of the sums involved. This will be the case, for example, for a company considering heavy training because it anticipates future reorganizations. These programs can mobilize up to 100,000 euros. For a chance to win the case with these bodies, the matter must aim the development of transversal skills that beneficiaries can develop outside their own service or even in other companies. Then, each window has its own objectives. Thus, regional councils

    Focus on companies with fewer than 250 employees, realizing a turnover of less than EUR 50 million. Provided that they are not held for more than 25% by a company that does not meet the first two conditions.

    Social goals

    State aid is granted by the Regional Directorate of Labor, Employment and Vocational Training (DRTEFP). Through agreements Commitments development of employment and skills (Edec) and agreements for training and adaptation of the National Employment Fund (FNE), they are intended to maintain the employability of employees. It will defend here referred to social projects in which training occurs, for example, as an alternative to layoffs. Same priority to the social side of Europe. But in this case it is the prefecture which sends the file in Brussels. Nothing prevents hitting several counters, aid to the region and state are cumulative, like those of the State and Europe. Unable to cash in contrast to both the manna of Opca and that of the region. The agreement of the Opca is indispensable for national and European subsidies.

    Meet deadlines

    The success of the approach then be based on a strict timing. The application is often downloaded from the Internet, but must manually sign and send by mail. Once the dossier, count between fifteen and thirty days to get a decision if the request is for a Opca. The ideal is, in this case, to provide a two-month retroplanning before the start of training. Of the conditions can be negotiated with the training firm: if the company does not get subsidies, it may cancel their registration without payment. Most organizations have used to discuss such conditions, let alone in the context of individual training.

    If the file to the recipient region, state or Europe, plan at least four months between the filing of the application and the start of training actions envisaged. And count one more month for the preparation of the dossier. Concerning the region, better show up early in the year. Later, the funds are often empty. the regional council decisions are indeed made subject to budgetary availability.

    No room for error

    Whatever the requested institution, do not overlook any detail and fill each box. In case of deficiency, you will have no second chance or request for clarification: your file will go in the trash without further ado. So you need to learn precisely before you start by consulting the websites of financiers, usually very full on the terms and conditions of eligibility.

    Applications from Opca be summarized in general the basic identification data communications company and candidate training. individual logic compels you have to fill a record per employee, joining the training program, details of alternation, as well as the estimate of the training firm.

    The records for the regional council, the prefecture DRTEFP or are otherwise more complicated to build. Seriously argued on the intended strategy, they should include administrative and accounting documents. It will thus mobilize internal legal and financial services and human resources management. And do not hesitate to seek Opca, which remains a valuable source of information and explanation of the funding mechanisms.

    Publicis Groupe: Supervisory Board

    Publicis Groupe: Supervisory Board

    Monique Bercault whose term also expires, expressed the wish not to apply for renewal.

    Moreover, on the advice of Publicis Groupe’s Nomination Committee, the General Assembly will be offered the appointment of three new members to the Supervisory Board: Mrs Marie-Claude Mayer, Worldwide Account Director, Publicis, Marie-Josee Kravis , President of the museum of modern art of New York (MOMA) and Veronique Morali, President of Fimalac Developpement.

    Thus, subject to approval by the general meeting, the Publicis Groupe Supervisory Board will have 7 women and 9 men or 16 members, including 8 independent.

    Recall that the current Supervisory Board has 14 members (after the resignation of Mrs. Leone Meyer intervened in November 2009):

    – Elisabeth Badinter, Chair of the Supervisory Board of Publicis Groupe SA – Sophie Dulac, Manager of Sophie Dulac Productions – Simon Badinter, Chairman and CEO of Medias & Regies Europe – Monique Bercault, Technical Advisor to the President of Medias & Regies Europe (whose reappointment is not offered) – Claudine Bienaime, Member of the Supervisory Board since June 2008 – Michel Cicurel, CEO of Compagnie Financière Edmond de Rothschild – Henri-Calixte Suaudeau, Director of Publicis Conseil – Michel Halperin, Attorney – Helène Ploix, President Pechel Industries – Amaury de Seze, Chairman of the Board and the Carrefour Group – Gerard Worms, Managing Partner of Rothschild & Cie Banque – Tatsuyoshi Takashima, President & CEO of Dentsu Inc. – Felix George Rohatyn, Special advisor to the Chairman of Lazard (Special advisor to Chairman & CEO) – Tadashi Ishii, Executive Vice President of e Dentsu Inc.

    Marie-Claude Mayer, born on 7 October 1947, graduated from the Institut d’Etudes Politiques de Paris and holds a Master of Sociology, started his career at Publicis Conseil in 1972 as Assistant Advertising Manager. Named Account Director, she manages large budgets in various sectors (Colgate, Europ Assistance, Nestle, Galeries Lafayette, Dim / Sara Lee, etc.). Then she joined the Board of Publicis Executive Committee as Executive Vice President. In 1998, it takes international functions as Worldwide Account Director to oversee the Group’s brands L’Oreal managed by the Publicis network in more than 70 countries (Garnier SoftSheen.Carson, LaScad, Lancome, Biotherm, Helena Rubinstein, L L’Oreal Professional, Kerastase, Matrix). Since 2009, she is a member of the Shareholders’ Committee of the Women’s Forum for the Economy and Society.

    Mrs. Marie-Josee Kravis, born September 11, 1949, received a Masters in Economics from the University of Ottawa. She is an economist specializing in public policy analysis and strategic planning. She works with the Hudson Institute since 1973. As a journalist, she has written sections for several Canadian newspapers. She also writes articles for the magazine “Foreign Affairs” and the Wall Street Journal. She is the President of the Museum of Modern Art (New York) and board member of the Hudson Institute and The Robin Hood Foundation. She is a member of the Board of Overseers and that of the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. She is a member of the International Committee of Advisors of the Federal Reserve Bank in New York.

    Mrs. Veronique Morali, born September 12, 1958, graduated from the Institut d’Etudes Politiques de Paris and the Ecole Superieure de Commerce de Paris, was, from 1990 successively advisor, Deputy CEO, Director and Managing Director of the Group Finalac then President Finalac Development and Director and Vice-Chairman of Fitch Group. In December 2009, she was appointed Director of Coca Cola Enterprises Inc and President of Women Corporate Directors Paris. She is founder and President of the site Terrafemina and, since 2010, member of the Shareholders’ Committee of the Women’s Forum for the Economy and Society.

    About Publicis Groupe

    (Euronext Paris: FR0000130577) is the third largest communications group, the world’s second largest media counsel and buying in and the global leader in digital communications and in health. The Group is present in 104 countries on 5 continents and has approximately 45,000 employees. The Groupe offers communication services to local and international clients a complete range of advertising through three global advertising networks, Leo Burnett, Publicis, Saatchi & Saatchi, and two multi-hub networks, Fallon and Bartle Bogle Hegarty (49% subsidiary). The Board and the purchase of media space is offered through two worldwide networks, Starcom MediaVest Group and ZenithOptimedia; and expertise in digital and interactive communications through Digitas and Razorfish including networks. Publicis Groupe launched VivaKi to leverage the synergies of the autonomous operations of Digitas, Razorfish, Starcom MediaVest Group, Denuo and ZenithOptimedia. This entity develops new services, tools, and next generation digital platforms. The Group’s offer also includes marketing services and specialized communications and multicultural communications, healthcare communications with Publicis Healthcare Communications Group (PHCG), corporate and financial communications, public relations, social marketing, event marketing and sports through MS & L Group, one of the world’s top five networks in these trades.