Make your most seen the show stand

Make your most seen the show stand

If companies are scrambling in these events is that the game is worth the candle. But still need to stand out to attract visitors .

About 1,800 fairs are held every year in France. Companies come meet with their clients, new prospects, make themselves known or sniff the industry trend, observing the new competition. This participation, however, has a cost. A stand 10 to 20 square meters, in a medium-sized room, currency is between 8,000 and 16,000 euros. And it takes up to 40,000 euros for 25 square meters in a public event such as the Paris Motor Show. Basically, this budget is divided equally between the rental and management of the stand, on the one hand, and indirect costs (salaries, travel) and communication, on the other. Return on such investment implies attract maximum visitors. Our advice to achieve this.

Get as close as possible poles of attraction

Remember to book your place in advance. Even from one year to another if you expose a salon that practices “rebooking”. Get as close as possible poles of attraction: VIP area, TV studio (where the lectures are held), press office, bars, restaurants and even toilets (to benefit from the passage). Prefer a secondary driveway leading to a lively place: in the main walkways, visitors traveling in the middle and it is difficult to approach them. Since it is not a competitor, to stand beside a major exponent is a good idea because you will benefit from the crowds it generates. Avoid, however, the little busy places such as peripheral alleys, away from leisure and catering spaces. The just behind the entrance is also a gamble: in their tracks, visitors do not want to stop.

Use the best available means of communication

Your business must be included in the exhibition catalog (description of activity, number of the aisle, stand, etc.) Also, consider buying distribution rights, which will allow you to distribute flyers or giveaways in the aisles for a day or half a day. Do not overlook the tools offered by the organizers. On Direct Marketing expo, the communications agency Fidelis was able to afford form of dog paws that plodded inlays on the carpet to its booth (cost of such an operation: between 1,000 and 5,000 euros ). Before the event, announce your participation by all means: website, social network, newsletter and even signing your emails . Invite your customers and prospects by email three months in advance and make regular reminders in the last fortnight.

Make your booth attractive and look after the home

To capture attention, make sure that your stand is way off: lights and bright colors, large and beautiful images . Facilitate Access (outlaw stairs, partitions, door, etc.), take care of the decor (with plants green, for example), opt for designer furniture and choose a slogan that clearly describes your business: we must understand at a glance what you do. Another tip: put the emphasis on the height of the stand, even sacrifice some space, for thus it will gain in impact. Finally, fashionable trend, arrange a VIP area on the roof. Guaranteed effect! If your budget allows, enjoy the services of a hostess (250 to 300 euros per day). Also plan some training so she knows establish a first contact with visitors, educate or direct them to the right person.

Multiply gifts and friendliness signs

Sweets, cakes, “goodies” . these little touches will all hooks. In the alleys, offer giveaways (a magnet, for example). Once shod visitors, encourage them to drop their business card in a box to enter a daily draw lots which will, according to your means, a gift box, a touch pad or a flat screen. Plan also presents for your longstanding customers (business card case, memory stick, bottle of wine). On the stand, candy jars or drinks will help you retain visitors longer. Book alcohol at lunchtime and cocktails. In the morning, prepare coffee and indulge in at will.

Schedule of events and let us know

Multiply highlights: presentation of a novelty, launching a product which you invite the press. Citroën has waited for the Shanghai Motor Show in April to present the DS5: 600 journalists were present. If you have space, do as the United States: round tables about fifteen minutes, followed by a question-and-answer session with the audience. Invite your customers to participate in the showcase. And above all, do you know yourself by intervening in conferences organized by the living room. Animations must be announced and be reminders by email (the day before) and SMS (45 and 5 minutes before their start) to customers and prospects at the show. Some organizers are in charge of these automated submissions. Otherwise, go with a provider.

Gastronomy: the madness of home chefs

Gastronomy: the madness of home chefs

Afford the services of a chef to entertain guests? A concept booming for three years and not necessarily ruinous.

Normally, it’s my wife who cooks. For his birthday, I wanted it to be at the table “The solution to succeed his surprise, they are friends of François Yung, special advisor to entrepreneurs, who have blown him. A home cook . “It happened to 10 am with its bowls and cans, filled the basket. I set the table and he took care of everything. He advised me to wine and it made the service. When he left after sharing champagne with us, the kitchen was clean. “

The birthday luncheon that amazed his friends will cost her 40 euros per person, without leaving the living room. For three years, this service has developed in France, and platforms are created on the Internet to link customers and professionals. About 2 500 independent cooks exert now a private chef activities in France. In question, the French regained appetite for eating well without them necessarily have the time or talent to cook. And “with” Top Chef, “” MasterChef “and” An almost perfect dinner “, this formula looks more and more people,” says Stephen Leguillon, founder of Beauty Plate, a site that allows online reservation benefits culinary.

On its site, it offers the services of 55 chefs, all selected after a test dinner. These hats are free to set their prices, their conditions and their recipes, like Adib Kaddoura, a cook who offers menus ranging from 44 to 87 euros per person. In exchange, they are returning a 12% commission the company to Stephen Leguillon, which also provides them with assistance in managing their accounts.

A key, an average income of 2,000 euros per month for the elect, that they leave school or a starred establishment. The start-up has already organized several fundraisers to 100 000 and is preparing a new round bringing French investors, but also British and American.

With a first menu at 75 euros per person, Dinners Eloise aim, them wealthy clients looking to combine fine dining and privacy of the home. An initial investment of EUR 300 000 and seven employees or associates leaders all went through the starred restaurants, enabled the company to achieve 1 million in revenue this year.

In Reims, Denis Spitz has also specialized in high cuisine and full service home services, for companies or individuals. Among its regulars, the champagne houses Veuve Clicquot or Bollinger. It comes to you to define your menu (35 to 95 euros) and can, on the day, you prepare carpaccio St. Jacques on a mashed avocado, lime vinaigrette and fresh basil, or trifle with strawberries and ricotta mousse with pink biscuits of Reims. It can also, for 130 euros more, bringing his butler, to perfect service.

The professionals also see in this new market a way to gain their independence. At 26, Frederic Moulin worked in the most prestigious kitchens of France: Guy Savoy, Paul Bocuse and Le Grand Vefour. “My goal is to open my restaurant, so I became chief in a traditional, then I started freelance. We are obliged to calculate all our ratios, ourselves we buy our products. This is an excellent school, “he says. His meals at home, between 55 and 200 euros per guest, also allow it to be a nice address book: he recently cooked for the pastry chef Pierre Herme or owners of ST Dupont lighters.

But the concept is not restricted to an elite. At 20, Theophile Playoust offers menus at 36 euros per person. “I started through my parents, friends, network,” says the young man who, after two years of hotel school, did not exercise in a restaurant. Through its Facebook page and word-of-mouth, he made two to three services a week and already earns up to 4,000 euros per month.

Over time, Theophilus saw broaden its customer base. “Many young people call me for dinner with friends at home. Not necessarily wealthy, but are fun. “In short, no need to go to the restaurant, now, is the restaurant that comes to you.

SCOR met en place le Hub de Paris

With the establishment of a management platform in Paris, SCOR completes the restructuring of its global operations from six Hubs: Paris, Zurich, Cologne, London, New York and Singapore. The Group achieved its corporate goal of being a truly multinational company with local responsibilities, regional and global level as SCOR Global P & C, SCOR Global Life and SCOR Global Investments at Group level. The Group’s six platforms henceforth constitute the frame of SCOR international network.

Regarding the Hub, Frederic Fougère was appointed CEO of the Paris Hub. He is assisted by Alain Modicom as Hub CFO, Hubert Estibal, Human Resources Manager Hub, Vincent Malige, General Counsel and Legal Manager Hub, and Marc Philippe, Chief Information Officer of the Hub. Jean Laffitte is Director of General Services in Paris.

With regard to the Group’s parent company, SCOR SE, it provides all functions falling under Group responsibility. Some of these activities are carried out from Paris, others are conducted from other Hubs. Functions located in Paris are:

– The Group’s Executive Committee (COMEX).

– Central Group functions relating to accounts consolidation and to relationships with the French market authorities (Chris Wing) along with Group Treasury (Christophe Darchy) and Group Tax (Stephane Reboul), all under the responsibility of Paolo Martin, Group CFO.

– The Risk Management Service (Wayne Ratcliffe), and the actuarial activities (Eric Lecoeur) and retrocession (Emmanuel Durousseau) at Group level under the responsibility of Jean-Luc Besson, the Group CRO.

– The economic and policy analysis functions of the Group headed by Philippe Trainar, Chief Economist Group.

– The Group’s support functions related to Chief Operating Officer:

– General Secretariat (Sylvain Boueil)

– Legal Department (Vincent Malige)

– Information Systems (Regis Delayat)

– human resources

– Communication Group (Beat Werder)

– the Budget and Cost Control function for the Group (Patrick Chevaillier).

The asset management company, SCOR Global Investments, under the responsibility of François de Varenne (CEO), is directly attached to SCOR SE.

Certain Group functions are conducted from other Hubs:

– Under the Group CRO’s responsibility, financial modeling activities (Michel Dacorogna) based in Zurich, and the assessment of Life Embedded Value (Frieder Knüpling) in Cologne;

– under the Group CFO responsibility, financial planning and analysis activities of the Group (Andreas Frank) in Zurich and Investor Relations (Marco Circelli) in London;

– under the responsibility of the IOC Group, the activities related to IT infrastructure (Andrew Flasko) based in New York;

– Some activities of SCOR Global Investments will be conducted from London and Zurich.

Denis Kessler, Chairman and Group Chief Executive, said: “This new organizational structure in Paris completes the organization of the Group around the innovative concept of media platforms or Hubs It reflects the decentralized, multinational and multicultural SCOR appropriate. perfectly to the international reinsurance business. within this new organization of truly global dimension and supported by a common information system for the entire Group, Paris is a major operational platform for the Group following the example of five other Hubs. the Group functions so now are separated from the operational activity of SCOR Global Life and SCOR Global P & C and distributed over les six Hubs. This organization must support the Group’s performance by increasing its flexibility and liberating productivity gains “.

Hubs of officials will meet quarterly in order to share experiences, to improve the functioning of each of the hubs, for better operational efficiency throughout the Group.

Frederic Fougère, 47, a graduate of HEC, began his career as a consultant with Mars & Co and then joined the insurance industry in 1992 and became Director of Strategy of the UAP group. In 1996 he joined PFA, a subsidiary of the ATHENA Group, as CFO and then as Director of AGF following interests in AGF buyout. In 2000 he joined GROUPAMA GAN as Deputy CEO for GAN Eurocourtage, which he left to found a consulting company and as working since 2003 regularly for the SCOR Group.

Alain Modicom, 45, graduated from the Higher Institute of Commerce, began his career at Mazars, becoming a Manager. He joined the SCOR Group in 1995 where he has held since that date the position of head of social accounting of French companies.

Hubert Estibal, 47, holds a Master in Human Resources Engineering, has spent most of his career in the SCOR Group and was previously the Assistant to the Director of Human Resources.

Vincent Malige, 37, holds a Masters in Economic Law from the Sorbonne University Pantheon and CAPA holder. He began his career as a corporate lawyer in London and Paris to join from 2001 to 2006 a law firm specializing in mergers and acquisitions. In 2006 he joined the SCOR Group as a lawyer within the Group Legal Department. He leads since September 2007, the Legal Corporate Group.

Marc Philippe, 41, graduated from Ecole Polytechnique and ENST (Ecole Nationale Superieure des Telecommunications), began his career as design engineer in the IBM group and as an IT consultant in Price Waterhouse. He joined the SCOR Group in 1998, where he served as project manager functions, head of studies and lately Deputy IT Director.

Jean Laffitte, 58, previously Head of General Services and Logistics at the French Federation of Insurance Companies, joined the SCOR Group in 2003 as Director of General Services, a position he held until now.

forward-looking statements

SCOR does not communicate “profit forecasts” in the sense of Article 2 of (EC) 809/2004 of the European Commission. Consequently, the forward-looking statements referred to in this paragraph can not be equated to such profit forecasts. Certain statements in this communication may include a forward-looking, including, without limitation, statements that are predictions of or indicate future events, trends, plans or objectives, based on certain assumptions and include any statement which does relate not directly to a historical fact or current fact. Forward-looking statements are typically identified by words or phrases such as, in particular, an anticipation, a presumption, a conviction, a continuation, an estimation, expectation, forecast, intention, a possibility of increase or fluctuation and similar expressions or the use of verbs in the future or conditional. Undue reliance should not be placed on such statements that are inherently subject to known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors, which may lead to significant differences between the actual results, on the one hand, and achievements announced in this press release other.

SCOR reference document filed with the AMF on 28 March 2008 under number D.08-0154 (the “Document de Reference”), describes a number of factors, risks and uncertainties that could affect SCOR group sales. Due to the extreme volatility and profound changes that are unprecedented in the history of finance, SCOR is exposed to significant financial risks as risks related to the Business School Admission market, as well as to other types of risks, which include changes in interest rates, credit spreads, equity prices and exchange rates, changes in the policies and practices of rating agencies, and the lowering or loss of financial strength or other ratings.

L’Oreal, the making machine cracks

L’Oreal, the making machine cracks

The global leading beauty cream recruiting and marketing experts. Survey codes and methods of a group that does not tolerate to nearly.

Even the interview river Liliane Bettencourt, the heiress of L’Oreal, in “Paris Match”, in early October, was censored. In recent months, the world’s No. 1 cosmetics removes its internal review of all press articles related to bounce “case”. “The first business,” insists substantially Jean-Paul Agon, CEO. At the headquarters in Clichy, as in the smallest branch in the other side of the world, employees do not have to do violence to follow the instructions, they assimilated. The pressure for results is rooted in the history of this multinational, accustomed for twenty-six years at a double-digit growth in profits (+ 21.4% in first half 2010). Here, self-improvement is the rule. And leadership the cardinal virtue. backstage Survey among these executives “who are worth it.”

The cult of “always more”

Flowing, really? When he was appointed CEO of L’Oreal, in 2006, Jean-Paul Agon was reputed to be less brittle Lindsay Owen-Jones, its predecessor for eighteen years, now president of the group, and is still the subject of a real veneration in the house. To mark its difference, the new boss has stepped up social measures: the fight against stress, charter on diversity, evaluation of managers on personal development criteria . But the profitability requirement, it has not changed. Now, L’Oreal, those are the numbers that dictate the tempo. Hence the ultrasoutenu rhythm, which sometimes puts family life to evil, especially for young mothers (64% of employees are women).

A visit to the headquarters in Clichy, where the phosphorus in consumer products, is enough to be convinced. At nine least, marketers of L’Oreal Paris, Garnier and Maybelline are already busy in their offices. It is frowned upon arriving later. The day then place in a frantic whirlwind burst meetings, lunch break shipped in thirty minutes, security officials forced to dislodge the most zealous after 21 h 30 . “Life at L’Oreal, is a little return student years, summarizes a framework. later we bump together, they dine together, see you on the weekend . “

The consumer division, which accounts for half of sales, is known to be the hardest. “Fought Market, knife negotiations with retailers . it’s war!” Laughs a product manager. “The atmosphere is just as tense luxury division, Lancôme and Biotherm. But the relationships between people are more muted, “says one expert group. And it is even relaxed in the active cosmetic branches (Vichy, La Roche Posay .) and professional products (Kerastase, Redken .). Normal: L’Oreal dominates the market for drugstores and hair salons.

Everywhere, management maintains emulation. At all levels. We must, of course, beat rivals in its sector: Nivea, Schwarzkopf or LVMH (Dior, Guerlain .). But doing better, too, than the other group brands. And, if possible, than other products in its own team. “My boss loved to put under my nose the figures of my colleagues,” says a former product manager. To stand out, young wolves marketers use their expertise as their “expertise.” They speak highly of their good results in the cafeteria, distribute their products to all services in preview . “Market yourself!” They do we advise the HRD. The rumor even says that a director would have let to the year for its brand all the advertising boards on the path taken by Jean-Paul Agon, from his home in Neuilly-sur-Seine to the seat of Clichy history lather with the boss .

A naturelleLa selection pressure is at its peak on the day of the budget or strategic presentations. The most feared? The “prospective” meeting. Twice a year, the 23 owners of international brands exhibiting their launch plans to Jean-Paul Agon. “One month we hump like crazy to wedge all,” says a luxury division of the frame. Make and remake – a L’Oreal principle – slides, check the tables of figures, including the famous “OJ1” – the initials of Owen-Jones – that compares sales advertising investment . Number of careers are made and unmade during the oral exam.

The weakest often end up resigning. Or inherit a job for less. “When my boss found itself in the sights, I understood the meaning of humiliation,” says this former communications service. In recent months, with the crisis, “Darwinism” was further strengthened. “Jean-Paul Agon has declared a so-called combing policy says a” orealien the “seasoned. We were asked to be inflexible with those who underperform. In some countries, an internal study showed that demotivaient colleagues . “

Remuneration gold

The house know however be generous towards those who hold up. In 2009, L’Oreal executives got an average 4.9% increase, enough to fantasize a lot of their colleagues in the CAC 40. “We ask a lot, but in return we give as much confirms Jean- Claude Le Grand, HRD of the consumer division. Fixed, comfortable salaries but in standard French multinationals are added almost three months salary in profit sharing. “Either 9000 euros for a youth group leader paid 40 000 per year,” it calculated to management. “On the incentive, only Dassault competes with us,” says Georges Liarokapis, central delegate CFE-CGC. Seat Clichy and Saint-Ouen, employees also have a concierge worthy of a palace. Gone, however, the lavish receptions, disco fee notes or what happened, seminars in Mauritius, with luxury, fireworks and champagne dinner in a private lagoon. ensures management control.

The talent hunt

Not enough to lower the L’Oreal rating among students, obviously. In the last week of ESCP in Paris, the group’s stand has raised more than 1 000 applications in one day! The seven scouts dispatched to the occasion asked the young detailing their motivations and to engage in the “exegesis” of a product selected at random. All in five minutes flat . “The detection of talent is an obsession with us,” explains Jean-Claude Le Grand. The company invests several million euros each year in company chairs (HEC as the School of Mines), partnerships with 200 universities in the world, marketing contest .

The largest of them, the “L’Oreal Brandstorm” attracted in June more than 6000 students from 270 schools scattered around the globe. The prize for the winning team? A trip to 10 000 and six-month internship. A must for getting a job: 90% of new hires are former interns. These orealiens the budding paid 1,100 euros net per month, three times the standard compensation, are tested on real projects under the command of a young product manager whose scans at the same time, the ability to management.

Only the best students are hired after four to ten interviews! Again, the product is at the heart of the process. “They showed me a hair coloring bottle, I had twenty minutes to present a plan to launch internationally!” Recalls Anna Weste, 29 years already and Marketing Director Europe for makeup L’Oreal Paris . A battery of questions, sometimes surprising ( “And if you were a vegetable?”) Makes sure that the candidate is hardworking, talented and ambitious oral. In short, it has the standard profile. “Koalas have two voltage does not belong here,” a downright cowardly leader.

The mold managerAvant to take their position, the new kids are all sent “on the road”. A test of six to twelve months during which they travel, shoulder computer, the province of supermarkets, install deodorants on the shelves at 5 am and slept at night in spartan hotels industrial area . “Hard, but essential for rub for retailers and consumers, “says an employee at Lascad (Dop, Mixa, Narta .). After this “hazing” scale, young product managers for two weeks following an integration course, the L’Oreal Culture Discovery, with presentation of different trades (R & D, finance, advertising .) and visits to factories or logistics centers.

Then it’s the big plunge. “It starts in the pool of the business and you have to learn to swim alone,” said one seat frame. This early empowerment, rare in multinationals is one of the key elements that appeals to young graduates. “By becoming a product manager on the red Maybelline lip, I found myself at the head of an SME. At 24! “Anna is still surprised Weste. Price segmentation of the range, merchandising, advertising . It’s all to do. Better then follow the motto here “! Lie with your products” At Clichy, one sees that they: Elvive shampoo mounds or aftershave Men Expert enthroned in each office.

Express promotions

If L’Oreal as dream in business schools and marketing, it is also because careers are faster than elsewhere. A manager with high potential, spotted after several successful launches, is automatically promoted every two or three years, as first group leader, operational marketing director then and CEO of a brand and finally a country. To expand its range, it often exchange sector. Before becoming Global Head of Professional Products, Christophe Leguay, 48, went through three divisions in France and then to Britain, where he oversaw L’Oreal Paris. The objective of the management? Maintain managers in a “healthy concern,” as they say in the jargon home and drive up the best. To the peaks.

Jean-Paul Agon has opened recruiting external talent, young people under 30 years still “formatables” or pointed seniors, as Veronique Gautier, former President Jean Paul Gaultier named International CEO of Giorgio Armani fragrances. And it now allows those who left L’Oreal – sacrilege time Owen-Jones – to return. But, most top managers are always from the Seraglio. The forty more senior officers are even the subject of a personalized succession plan, with, for each of them, three names identified dolphins in the house. The machine is not near seize .

Harley Procter (1846-1923), Procter Gamble: intuitively, he found all the ingredients that create the image of a product

Business School Admission

Harley Procter (1846-1923), Procter & Gamble: intuitively, he found all the ingredients that create the image of a product

Summary record

  • Matthew Boulton (1728-1809): the precursor of the industrial revolution mechanized plants
  • Robert Owen (1771-1858): Social early, he tried to remove the working poverty
  • Aristide Boucicaut (1810-1877), Le Bon Marche: the trader who established the principles of the retail
  • Andrew Carnegie (1835-1919), Carnegie Steel: the steel magnate has designed the most modern plant of its time
  • John Rockefeller (1839-1937), Standard Oil: Oil King and richest man in history
  • Harley Procter (1846-1923), Procter & Gamble: intuitively, he found all the ingredients that create the image of a product
  • Auguste (1862-1954) and Louis Lumière (1864-1948): they invented the cinema, a new art and a new industry
  • Henry Ford (1863-1947): the car for all his revolutionary idea
  • Alfred Sloan (1875-1966), General Motors under his reign, GM dominated the automotive industry and is the world leader
  • Andre Citroën (1878-1935): it has propelled the brand to the zenith with its stunts
  • Robert Woodruff (1889-1985), Coca-Cola: the man who transformed a small bottle of soda in Atlanta international star
  • George W. Merck (1894-1957): the first to grasp the importance of R & D
  • Paul Galvin (1895-1959), Motorola twenty years of failure before take off this business
  • Henry Luce (1898-1967), Time Inc .: the father of magazines
  • William Allen (1900-1985), CEO of Boeing’s crazy paris opened the jet age and democratized air travel
  • Walt Disney (1901-1966): his imaginary universe has already amazed billions of children
  • Ray Kroc (1902-1984), McDonald’s or how to produce a standardized chain-chopped steak frites
  • Forrest Mars (1904-1999): the apostle products simple, cheap and sold all
  • Estee Lauder (1906 – 2004): Demonstrator, outstanding saleswoman, pioneer of buzz, it built its empire cosmetic field
  • Bill Hewlett (1913-2001) and David Packard (1912-1996), HP: they released the creativity of employees by granting them total confidence
  • Eiji Toyoda (1913-2013), Toyota’s “just-in-time” Fordism relegated to oblivion
  • Thomas Watson (1914-1993): introducing computers in all businesses, this boss IBM revolutionized management
  • Sam Walton (1918 -1992), Wal-Mart: the lord of the discount that transformed the American heartland
  • Akio Morita (1921-1999): the samurai who invented consumer electronics
  • Lee lacocca (born 1924), Chrysler: Chrysler and Ford owe him a debt of gratitude
  • James Burke (1925-2012), Johnson & Johnson: the crisis remains the reference management model
  • François Michelin (1926-2015): he imposed his mark worldwide
  • Ingvar Kamprad (born 1926), Ikea: Swedish sorcerer inventor of low-cost furniture
  • Hiroshi Yamauchi (1927-2013), Nintendo: he made gaming a global leisure
  • Li Ka Shing (born 1928), Hutchison Whampoa: he took advantage booms as recessions
  • Herb Kelleher (born 1931), Southwest Airlines: the concept of the low-cost airline he created was copied on all continents
  • Rupert Murdoch (born in 1931), News Corp. : It is by buying and straightening dozens of newspapers that he composed his media galaxy
  • Jack Welch (born 1935), General Electric: it has increased tenfold profits of its group
  • Horst Dassler (1936-1987), Adidas: he invented the sports marketing gifts to blows
  • Ferdinand Piëch (born 1937), VAG: brilliant engineer and manager to handle, Volkswagen has revived
  • Ratan Tata (born in 1937), Tata group: he modernized and globalized the first Indian industrial group
  • Yvon Chouinard (born in 1938): the pioneer of ethical and ecological business
  • Phil Knight (born 1938), Nike: he had the idea of ​​paying celebrities to say “Just do it”
  • Muhammad Yunus (born 1940): banker to the poor, microcredit creator
  • Lou Gerstner (born 1942), IBM: in less than a decade it has changed the business heart of the computer business
  • Dietrich Mateschitz (ne en 1944), Red Bull : son plan marketing associe speed, fun et glamour
  • Fred Smith (born 1944), FedEx: “If it’s an urgent parcels, FedEx will do”
  • Jong-Yong Yun (born 1944), Samsung sweeping traditions, he transformed his company the leader in the high-tech
  • Bernard Arnault (born 1949), LVMH luxury empire his dream across the planet
  • Richard Branson (born 1950), Virgin: the best pub of the group is its highly eccentric boss
  • Carlos Ghosn (born 1954), Renault-Nissan. He saved Nissan and Renault is a global group
  • Steve Jobs (1955-2011): the initiator and the guru of the digital revolution
  • Bill Gates (born 1955), Microsoft: It imposed its software on all personal computers
  • Jochen Zeitz (1963), Puma: thanks to him, Puma has regained its luster and combativeness
  • Jack Ma (born in 1964): its site, Alibaba offers SMEs access to global market
  • Jeff Bezos (born in 1964): the inventor and e-commerce leader
  • Xavier Niel (born in 1967): the breathtakingly beautiful climb troublemaker telecom
  • Elon Musk (born in 1971): it defies mature industries by changing all the rules
  • Larry Page and Sergey Brin (born in 1973), Google Inc.: the duo that simplified and spread Internet use
  • Mark Zuckerberg (born in 1984): Facebook has become a must for a quarter of humanity
  • We are in 1879. Harley 33 years. For nearly half a century, his father, William Procter, and his uncle, James Gamble, aged respectively 78 and 76, make candles and soap. The industry, in the late nineteenth century, was riding high. So much in the United States, the production of manufactured goods is overtaking that of agriculture. The problem is that the family business Procter & Gamble is lagging. Kerosene, gas and electricity provide shade to the candle, which represents three quarters of the company’s revenue. As for the soap, the competition is tough, whatever thinks James Gamble. Indeed, the patriarch believes that with 24 references, the company offers enough choice to customers.

    Psalm inspiring. His son, however, is of a different opinion. First family member graduated from college (Chemistry), James Norris Gamble developed a completely new white soap, quality similar to high-end products in the olive oil imported from Castile. Therefore, his cousin Harley Procter, son of William, is widening the meninges. He is aware that this product, very different from those of the competition represents a chance to reverse the decline of the company announced.

    The advertisement is then a fledgling technology, but Harley Procter knows intuitively that a product must have an attractive name and a selling point striking to find its audience. This Sunday morning during services at the church, instead of praying, he reflects on his soap. Around him, the audience sings the Psalm 45.8. It speaks of aloe, myrrh, cassia flower, and “ivory palace in which we find happiness.” “Ivory .” Eureka! Harley Procter found the baptismal name of the new brand: Ivory Soap was launched July 18, 1879.

    A real case of marketing school: Procter promotes her soap by letting it appropriate “to the laundry as personal hygiene.” This is the first product in the family of “two in one”, a concept that is still relevant on the shelves of supermarkets. With its central notch that invites to separate it into two pieces, it is also the first design soap! And that’s not all. Harley Procter employs an expert to study the composition of competitors samples then organize a test bed house. The consultant prepares the low presence of impurities in the new soap: a little carbonate, trace minerals and alkali metals. His conclusion: Ivory soap is pure “99.44 / 100%.” Procter takes advantage of this formula by making it prominently on the packaging. While some competitors are quick to add flour (to bind the ingredients) or marble dust (to increase weight), this figure has the appearance of a profession of faith.

    Bonus gift. Then a written retailer to order new boxes of “soap that floats.” Intrigued, Procter Gamble submits this mail, which investigates and finds the explanation: an employee has left its turn mixing during the lunch break. Result, all apparently normal lot, but the soaps contained a small amount of air, was shipped as is. The error will occur more ensures Gamble. Rather, decide Procter, which makes this manufacturing defect “most product” of Ivory Soap: soap that we never look in the bath, it’s magic. The air inclusion process is systematized and becomes Ivory “soap that floats.”

    In 1882, yet it is with reluctance that the founding elders of the company-which remain theoretically P-DG-Harley allocate the sum of 11,000 dollars to promote the brand. Therefore, it is in their heart’s content. He first offers color print ads and display ads modeled on posters announcing the plays and circus performances.

    He imagines then to offer a bonus gift -a booklet of advice to young mothers – passes control posters by artists, launches around the word Ivory a poetry contest whose success was immediate. Suffice to say that after having explored the branding concepts and customer loyalty, he invented modern advertising.

    “Soap operas”. The incomparable success of Harley Procter did not prevent him to fulfill a childhood desire to retire early from the business, and 45. His influence still continues to be felt permanently. It inspires in particular his nephew, William Cooper Procter, propelled the company’s orders in 1895. It is the latter that makes the decision to directly sell the firm’s products to retail. It seeks to prevent the storage of products by wholesalers (when they anticipate a price increase) does not cause fluctuations in sales and thus a disruption of production. While avoiding the wholesalers and increasing advertising, William can guarantee its teams work full-time throughout the year. It was he who adapts the communication of the firm to a new medium, radio. Procter & Gamble is sponsoring entertainment programs, the famous “soap operas.” During the first few episodes, in 1920, the company already has 5,500 employees. Today globalized, it employs 126,000.

    The Lever Brothers. As we would get here so, listening to the psalm 45.8, Harley Procter had had thoughts for less mercantile? Without a doubt. For, curiously, at the same time, the other side of the Atlantic, William Lever and his brother James as they began to produce soap and perfecting the art of selling by designing attractive packaging for the brand Sunlight Soap . The firm then Lever Brothers merged with a Dutch group Unilever to become. And it is no coincidence that even today, Procter & Gamble and Unilever are considered by business schools as the best employers to engage in a marketing career.

    The most welcoming countries for the French who want to emigrate

    The most welcoming countries for the French who want to emigrate

    Blocked in France? Inventory of countries seeking skills for all candidates to work with or without diplomas.

    William Doudou Thiam in 2002: a young graduate who connects the CSD-lived despite its economy stalled in college master Marseille. The same in 2013: he lives in London, where he created OST Consulting, a recruitment firm, after learning on the job among hunters reputed heads. “Here, no one is concerned about the reputation of my training, my sounding name or the color of my skin,” says the Franco-Senegalese 35 years. As for back across the Channel, it is not for tomorrow, “I’ll soon get married here .”

    Without going to marry a native, although the French do not hesitate, as William, to start or restart their careers abroad. We know the French scene: a weak labor market, the trend of recruiters to dismiss the imperfect CV, worship graduation, the difficulty that specifically meet candidates from immigrant even graduates. Elsewhere, all is not rosy, of course. But some of these barriers are more easily removed. Provided to choose the right destination.

    Germany: technicians and engineers are sought

    Ask a German HR that means to him Polytechnique “He probably evoke an employee master several technologies” smiles Jerôme Lecot, director Eurojob Consulting, a Franco-German recruitment firm. With their education systems, focusing on short vocational courses, our neighbors appreciate the quality of our engineers, but do not fall into a swoon before our schools. So, many profiles have their chance. Starting in the industry, bac + 2 technical or commercial and tray 5 in mechanical engineering, electronics and energy. Of course, germanisants will be favored.

    But beware: even for these, all regions are created equal. If half of the 50,000 French arriving each year opt for Berlin and its trendy atmosphere, they do not necessarily make the best choice. First, because unemployment is high (12%, against 5% in the country) and, except in the Internet start-up, jobs are scarce. Then because wages are on average 20% lower than in the west. Better to aim for the North Rhine-Westphalia, Baden-Württemberg or Bavaria, more dynamic. To find the offers, please visit the corporate sites and general job boards, like Monster, Indeed StepStone or or specialized (Log-Employment, VDI). Finally to network, go for Xing, first social site in Germany.

    Australia: Working Holiday is the ideal entry visa

    In 2013, Australia will know its twenty-second consecutive year of growth. Even if it slows down for a few months, it would take more to worry about its inhabitants. Want to smell a scent of optimism? For 18-30 years, it’s simple. Just ask a Working Holiday work permit, as did last year’s 20,000 French. Valid for one year, it allows prospecting on site, while living, if necessary, in odd jobs picking fruit and vegetables or restoration. But if you want to stay longer, we must find sustainable employment. Naturally, all profiles will not have the same opportunities. It will be difficult in marketing and communication, simpler in engineering or sales.

    To find, know that “60% of positions are filled by word-of-mouth,” says Jacques Reynaud, director of consulting firm HR Polyglot Group. Networking is therefore necessary, on LinkedIn, but also with the Franco-Australian Chamber of Commerce. Another imperative register with employment agencies (see list on, through which passes a quarter hiring. Finally, if you have more than 30 years, know that access to the Australian market will be difficult because work visas are granted only to those who already have a job. So, much prospect with a tourist visa, even though it is forbidden. A hope: to have a job which the country lacks, as auditor geologist, doctor or nurse. You will then receive a special entry procedure.

    Canada: Francophones are encouraged to come

    In November, the Canadian Embassy in Paris will organize its traditional annual forum on employment. But do not expect to enter freely. “Given the influx, visitors are selected in advance on record,” apologizes Louise Van Winkle, the immigration service. With its strong economy, its tolerant society . and French as a second language, the country has something to attract. To the point that employment center has an agreement with the authorities to encourage our unemployed from. How to do ? For those under 35, the best is to ask, as in Australia, a Working Holiday work permit. It will allow for a year of seeking an employer, a CDI contract is necessary to obtain a long-term visa. No language skills or experience are required.

    Attention their number is limited enrollment. Last year, the 6/700 availability were taken in 48 hours! Next destination, Quebec is logically the most popular province. Yet others, predominantly English-speaking, have potential, such as Alberta (construction, oil and gas), Ontario (ICT, biotech) or . Saskatchewan (education, health). Finally, if you are considering a permanent installation, be aware that some trades will be more favored than others in obtaining the papers, as they are deemed fit to shortages. This is the case, for example, mechanical engineers, chemists and computer scientists, but also welders, electricians, sheet metal workers or plumbers.

    United States: we must use cunning to access the “American dream”

    Hundreds of thousands of French nationals in the United States could testify. To work in the US, we must be patient because visa policy is strict: a contract is required before issuing the precious document. However, catering to IT, through fashion, tourism, engineering, areas abound in which local employers appreciate the French touch. The ideal for a graduate is to start with a VIE (voluntary international business) in a French subsidiary. Over a period of six months to two years, it can start looking for potential recruiters. Only competition obliges the LIFE are often former major schools.

    For others, there are tricks. First, that of canvass come on a tourist visa, even if it is not allowed. If you are under 35, it will be possible in the absence of a permanent contract, negotiate an internship of one year. To find the twenty Franco-American Chambers of Commerce will provide the opportunity for a valuable relay. Alternatively, however costly, enroll in an American college, even unknown. You will get a student visa and, at the end of your “true-false” studies, you can stay one more year with a visa says OPT issued easily. Provided, again, to have found at least one internship. For this, think primarily the many companies created by our compatriots. This was done Jerôme Lambert. This doctor of Finance 28, who found nothing in France, landed late 2011 in San Diego and quickly got an analyst at AnaMetrix, a web marketing start-up whose founder is a serial entrepreneur tricolor.

    Britain: rapid career for atypical CV

    How many are the Froggies? No one really knows. In London alone, the figures vary between 200,000 and 300,000! In any case, as shown by our survey, they are numerous and their profiles are more varied. It must be said that the British Business School Admission has a knack for attracting. And not only graduates of high schools in the City. Those ânonnent English find odd jobs in restaurants or distribution. “But once at home in the language, they can evolve,” says Marine Deneux, Center Charles Peguy, a French association that helps to fit. Those speaking well candidateront in recruitment agencies that monopolize 90% of the offers. Some firms such as French Resources aimed compatriots. Warning: here, a good degree does not decide a career. “Motivation is equally important,” says Alexandre Leblanc. In France, a graduate of ESC Troyes saw that offering jobs in sales. Party in London in late 2010, he started in marketing before becoming responsible HR and management consultant! “This trip changed my life.” Who’s next?

    Fernand Braudel (1902-1985): he has deciphered the economy across the millennia

    Fernand Braudel (1902-1985): he has deciphered the economy across the millennia

    Summary record

  • John Locke (1632 -1704): we owe him the concept of private property
  • Adam Smith (1723 -1790): the market does not need anyone to operate
  • Thomas Malthus (1766-1834): he warned against the population explosion
  • Jean-Baptiste Say (1767-1832): with its law of supply, a new product necessarily finds an outlet
  • David Ricardo (1772-1823): he codified the international trade practice
  • Charles Fourier (1772-1837): he laid the foundation of the cooperative model
  • Friedrich List (1789 – 1846): The theorist protectionist ‘temporary’
  • Frederic Bastiat (1801-1850): reject free trade is dying slowly
  • John Stuart Mill (1806 – 1873): Sustainable development was at the heart of his reflections
  • Karl Marx (1818 – 1883): his work gives the keys to understanding the crisis
  • Vilfredo Pareto (1848-1923): with its law 80/20, companies have learned to pace themselves
  • Thorstein Veblen (1857-1929): he castigated the advent of bling bling class
  • Max Weber (1864-1920): men’s beliefs affect production
  • William Beveridge (1879-1963): inventor of Social Security
  • John Maynard Keynes (1883-1946): this dandy revolutionized the role of the state
  • Joseph Schumpeter (1883-1950): he saw in innovation engine business
  • Nikolaï Kondratiev (1892-1938): for him, Business School Admissionism always rises from the ashes
  • Gunnar Myrdal (1898-1987): he demonstrated that inequalities have multiple causes
  • Alfred Sauvy (1898-1990): Long-term, progress creates jobs
  • Friedrich Hayek (1899 -1992): its neoliberal ideas are all the rage among Conservative Tea Party
  • Fernand Braudel (1902-1985): he has deciphered the economy across the millennia
  • John Von Neumann (1903-1957): his game theory changed the rules of negotiation
  • John Kenneth Galbraith (1908-2006): he denounced the excessive power of managers
  • Milton Friedman (1912 – 2006): He preached all his life against the misdeeds of public spending
  • James Tobin (1918-2002): the tax on financial transactions shaken EU
  • Gary Becker (1930-2014): his cost-benefit analysis has become a classic
  • Amartya Sen (born in 1933): the fruits of growth must be better distributed
  • Muhammad Yunus (born 1940): The Apostle of microcredit advocates a humanist finance
  • Arthur Laffer (1941): his “too much tax kills tax” influenced Reagan and Sarkozy .
  • Joseph Stiglitz (born in 1943): the preferred anti-globalization guru
  • Paul Krugman (born in 1953) he formulated the new theory of international trade
  • Jean Tirole (born 1953) has devised mechanisms to regulate oligopolies
  • Thomas Piketty (born in 1971): the analysis of inequalities is in line with public concerns
  • When Fernand Braudel, newly admitted under the dome of the French Academy, disappeared in 1985, superlatives reflect the respect shown to the deceased: “Prince of history,” “the story of Pope,” “the man who reinvented history “. neither the media nor the profession exaggerate: exceptionally strong intellectual work, Braudel has reigned for over half a century on the French historical school. But what link with the economy? Braudel is not a specialist in this field and would probably even wrong way to be considered as such. Yet his work has contributed most to make intelligible economic facts that many treaties or models.

    Just associate the young Braudel made his first teacher and researcher in Algeria, then in Brazil, where he spent a total of nearly fifteen years before the war. This vantage point is not trivial: by studying remote Europe, it shows an immediate ability to “globalize”. So while it begins a work first focused on Philip II and his policies, Braudel exchange length: the central character in his thesis, published in 1946, will not be the monarch, but the Mediterranean to Philip II of time . The Braudelian history is above all a story written in the space.

    Braudel also a triptych built around three nested timescales: long time, the geography, the average time that the economy and the short time that of politics. Needless to say, it is one that interests him less. With this new observation scale, the historian invents, almost by chance, a new concept: that of world economy.

    The history of the school of “Annals” wants total, built in close connection with geography, sociology, demography, and, even more, the economy . In the 1930s, Marxism dominates the intellectual sphere and up the question of the mode of production at the heart of reflection. In short, economic issues polarize the debates, including historians. From the Practical School of Higher Studies in the School of Higher Studies in Social Sciences, through the House of Human Sciences, all institutions that creates Braudel – and / or leads – during his career embody this interdisciplinarity. At the same time, Georges Duby and Jacques Le Goff are also starting up being economic historians. Joseph Schumpeter himself not he asserted that there was in his three ways to study economics – by history, by theory, by statistics – and that he regretted not having chosen the first of these channels?

    The day he said no to the Grande Muette

    Received 14th aggregation of history, Braudel was offered in 1923 to teach at prytaneum La Flèche (Sarthe), one of six schools of the Ministry of Defense. Answer: “I do not like the military.” He gets . Algeria.

    The terminal manual that he could not impose

    In the late 1950s, Braudel involved in discussions on school programs and campaigns for a new history teaching, based on a global vision of civilizations and not a chronological division. Released in 1963, this handbook for terminal is withdrawn from sale in 1970. Too revolutionary.


    Braudel is not an economic historian among others. From the publication of “The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Philip II” (1946) to that of “material Civilization and Business School Admissionism, XV-XVIII century” (1979), a single goal through his work: see through the secret of Business School Admissionism. According to him, there is no economy, but economies. Economic history and has three floors it absolutely necessary to distinguish.

    At the first level, underlying, often difficult to break because of insufficient documentation, thick zone of primary economy: a “sub-economy” made of self-sufficiency and barter, as Braudel calls “material culture”. Above, the one we described above others is called market economy, those shops, stalls, workshops . over yet, another opacity area: that of the great traders , ie Business School Admissionism.

    material civilization, the market economy and Business School Admissionism have always lived well; the diagram marks a clear break with the traditional Marxist view that the successive historical ages: slavery, serfdom, industrial revolution and the advent of Business School Admissionism. For Braudel, Business School Admissionism is not consubstantial with the industrialization of the world, it is timeless and immediately contrary emerges financial mechanisms that exist so slightly refined and long-term trading, as already in the Roman Empire or ancient China. The historian recognizes that the world of finance takes special expansion in northern Italy in the thirteenth century and already trying to organize things in its favor. Like the Bardi who created a banking company and trading posts out of the country by financing all the kings of France and England .

    No mistake however, Business School Admissionism is not the top level that controls the other two. “I believe humanity more than half buried in the daily” Braudel used to say to remind the weight of the first floor. Diverting Marxist axiom that it is men who make history, Braudel says that it is rather the history that makes men. By his own admission, this Business School Admissionism, which can not supply the whole of economic life, is “a minority phenomenon.” “Whenever I studied the Business School Admissionists, he added, I was amazed to see so few. “Medieval Venetian merchant bankers to the industrial revolution, it is a very narrow elite that tries to Business School Admissionize on tensions between the different economic zones.

    When “material civilization” Braudel appear in the late 1970s, the crisis in the West seems to confirm a kind of human powerlessness movements, large and mysterious in the economy. The short-term explanations ring hollow face to those of a historian who seeks to bring to light much deeper trends. The master does not he liked fun Economists interested in waves where historians observe the flow of the tides? Two young intellectuals then enroll in its wake to decrypt the contemporary world: Jacques Attali, which takes the concept of world economy in “The Three Worlds” (1981) to explain the current tilting the center of gravity the world economy to the Pacific; and Alain Minc, who in “The Post-crisis started” (1982) observed a return to underground economy in industrialized countries and assimilates the first floor of material life highlighted by Braudel.

    However, the major contribution of the historian, on which many rely speech today, sometimes unconsciously, due to the sharp distinction it operates between market economy and Business School Admissionism. If Braudel recognizes that the two often travel together – which explains the confusion usually made between them – it dissociates strictly a side Business School Admissionism international gasoline, commercial and financial, which plays the comparative advantages of each region of the world . And on the other, the sphere of commodity production, and more local economic gasoline. Both are not only distinct but according to Braudel, Business School Admissionism would not be an extension of the market economy: he would rather the negation. The opacity of the first objects to the transparency of the second. And Braudel, here yielding to value judgment, comes to the virtue of small commodity production to vilify an evil Business School Admissionist world without rules or boundaries.

    It is easily understood that such a plea – which earned the academician to be qualified as a historian “Proudhon,” in reference to Pierre-Joseph Proudhon ( “Property is theft”) – is found on the menu some current political discourse, both right and left. The local contractor would be a respectable economic agent threatened by greedy financial and unattached. Like the great Italian families of the Renaissance, whose business beyond boundaries and had adopted an organization not so different from that of today’s multinational, Business School Admissionist, says Fernand Braudel, “seize around them everything which is good to take the land, buildings, annuities, “and lead a dance to which princes and States are invited to adapt, for fear of being swept away. “They have the information superiority, intelligence and culture, and a thousand ways of distortion in their favor,” for the handling of the credit or currency.

    The Business School Admissionist never specialist, never limited to one activity, its grip is as wide as possible. Thirty-five years after the publication of these lines and as the crisis now threatens European states, subject to what some call the “diktat of the markets”, remake the journey through the centuries to which Fernand Braudel invites us n ‘ is certainly not tasteless.

    The Chinese Business School Admission of the business, home to the first port in the world, could dethrone New York in 2030.

    Okay, it’s a Chinese saying that. But when Justin Lin, former chief economist of the World Bank, announced that China could become the largest economy in the world in 2030 is that it has strong arguments. Between 1990 and 2011, the country posted an average annual growth rate of 10%. World Record, although since the average is around 7.5%. In 2007, China’s GDP exceeded that of Germany. And three years later, that of Japan. If she maintains a growth rate of between 7% and 8% per year, China is now second in the world with a GDP that has passed the 10,000 billion in 2015, could double the US within twenty coming years. And Shanghai, the economic Business School Admission, replace New York as the new “world city”, as defined by Braudel. With 24 million inhabitants, three times more than the Big Apple, this megalopolis whose name means “sea” is already home to the world’s largest harbor – to Singapore – which handles a fifth of total exports to China. In terms of GDP, it comes to pass Hong Kong. And with an attractive regime of tax incentives, it attracts more and more head offices of large companies, especially those whose business is not dependent on public tenders (other settling in Beijing). PSA, Hermes, Michelin, L’Oreal and Auchan are thus established their headquarters for the Asia-Pacific region. Ditto for foreign R & D centers including Shanghai alone attracts two thirds of all those who settle in the country. These laboratories not only used to adapt the products to the domestic market: they contribute to overall strategies of many groups, such as Thales, Rhodia, Saint-Gobain and Suez, with dedicated research projects.

    LDLC, the e-commerce Gold Family

    LDLC, the e-commerce Gold Family

    This site, set up by two brothers and their sister, became a reference in the sale of computer equipment online. It all began in Lyon, in the family apartment .

    “Shhh, listen,” Remi whispered Helmtsetter. Perched on a stairway filled to observe a ray maze of high-tech equipment, we reach the ear for long seconds. Perplexed. The warehouse manager of, large brown to jovial, insists: “You hear? Nothing, not a sound! “And yet we did it ensures the site of Saint-Quentin-Fallavier (Isère) in full swing. “The air of nothing, today we will ship 3500 package.” In fact, it’s an automated system that performs most of the work by routing cartons through a warehouse of 16,000 square meters. Miracle of technology .

    The success of is comparable to its logistics center: a deafening silence. In a few years, Lyon has quietly established itself as “the” expert in computer products on the Internet. Its virtual hypermarket has already attracted 1.6 million customers (60% private, 40% of professionals), including 600,000 who provide it regularly. And are willing to pay a little more to be sure to find the gadget of their dreams.

    “Today, a computer component on ten sold in France come from us,” says Laurent de la Clergerie (box bears his initials, LDLC), founder and CEO, in his modest office in Ecully, in Lyon suburbs. This grand shy of 41 years runs the business with his sister, Caroline, Executive Director, and his brother, Olivier, CEO. With 169 million euros in revenue in 2010-2011, up from 14% a year ago, this family business is starting to worry his opponents, as RueDuCommerce (€ 353 million), the founder ensures power up to three years.

    Valued at 40 million euros on the stock market, saw its increase over 127% in three years. Its history began in 1996 when the Web was still in its infancy. Laurent de la Clergerie, 26, all fresh out of engineering school, then niche chooses as his lifelong passion: computing.

    The trio has not yielded to the siren song of the investment fund

    In the family apartment in Saint-Didier-au-Mont-d’Or, he set up a sales site, one of the first of its kind. Convinces his father, an executive at Renault to invest 8,000 euros (50,000 francs at the time). It even fits in a scavenger hunt organized by “Paris Match”, is 400 kilometers away and landed 70,000 francs paid to the initial Business School Admission. The material is piled in the garage. “The first clients, I received the pajamas,” he recalls.

    Two years later, joined by his brother and sister, he opened a shop in the university district of Lyon for five years, it showcases, warehouse and headquarters. While the internet boom continues, the investment funds are knocking on their door. The trio keeps a cool head, preferring to place 30% of the Business School Admission stock. “When the bubble burst in 2000, our independence is our strength, because we had to be accountable to anyone,” he recalls.

    With its 20,000 references, the next treasure trove of LDLC, he has not changed. We can both unearth a battery or a new screen for an ancient computer, the most powerful hard disk or tablet last cry .. “It offers 500 different memory modules, against fifty in others trumpeted the Lawrence Clergerie. People come to us because they know that one has absolutely everything that exists in the market. “A Ecully, a team of ten buyers, one of which is in charge of China, spend the day on the phone with Suppliers. The founder, who love snooping on geeks forums (he has his own,, the pioneer of the genre, which has 850,000 subscribers), puts his hand to the dough.

    But LDLC not content to let its customers in this large virtual bazaar. Although minimalist (unchanged since 2001), its website offers a series of tips to guide the buyer: a module allows to check in three clicks if accessories are compatible with his computer. “Even the experts sometimes need guidance,” says Yann Benoît, in charge of Lyon Shop (LDLC into account another in Paris), where customers can test the equipment and order a custom computer. The service, charged 60 euros, is also available on the website. Since 90% of sales are made online, especially LDLC heals on time delivery. To ensure that customers receive their products within 24 to 48 hours, the site prefer to store a maximum of references. The warehouse is managed by a software designed by ultraperfectionne house experts.

    “Logistics is too important to be outsourced,” says the officer. Loïc Bouffard, a used computer expert customer LDLC, confirms: “The state of the stock listed on the website still reflects the reality, there was never any bad surprises.” The highlight of LDLC also shows the limits of its model, which requires to store thousands of references to low spin and charge prices a bit higher than elsewhere. Once a year, besides destocks LDLC in part, in a large market.

    Call center, customer service, nothing is outsourced

    Last cog in the machine: after-sales service. The company employs about thirty technicians, divided between a call center and a repair service. All experts, recruited after a battery of ultrapointues issues. Example: “A radiator provided to cool on a processor 1156 can it be reused on a socket 1155? Why? “In case of failure, LDLC promises to return the unit one week later against more than three in most competitors. If the repair drags on, it sends a new product: Once repaired, the damaged device used to help another customer. A smart system, which avoids accumulating complaints.

    Now the main goal of the family is to increase profitability, still modest (1.8 million euro net profit last year). It has diversified in 2008 in equipment for home with (€ 2 million turnover). “The goal is to build on the existing logistics to distribute products with higher margins than hardware,” said Laurent de la Clergerie. As for the family Business School Admission, “it is not about to touch it,” insists the young CEO. This great online poker player ranked in the top ten in the Poker Stars tournament may well be a follower of the bluff was well want to believe .

    How far the company uberisation she going to go?

    How far the company uberisation she going to go?

    Better services for a lower price . It’s hard to believe but the recent decline in prices VTC service Uber, in response to new commercial offers Parisian taxi companies Taxis G7 and blue looking to regain lost customers, is an example among others of the ongoing revolution that crosses our economy, shaken by the Internet. The revolution of apps seem a boon to consumers. But it is likely to increase unemployment and job insecurity. This is what we should expect .

    See its Paris headquarters, a simple apartment of 200 square meters perched above a scooter dealer in the Sentier district, Creads we imagine that evil can shake the emperors of advertising. “In France, Publicis and Havas share the cake for too long. We must shake up! “, Yet swagger Julien Mechin, co-founder of the start-up of 40 employees. The secret of this 2.0 Robespierre to decapitate the multinationals? When agencies pay thousands of creative, it does not pay any. He simply created a network of 50,000 independent workers, advertisers (Citroën, La Poste .) can create competition in a few clicks and cost. “Only the ten best projects are paid and we keep half the profits,” said the boss. Last spring, 175 members of the community have been working on the name of a credit card to Societe Generale. First prize for the winner? 200 euros. A good example of uberisation.

    UBERISATION? This neologism FASHIONABLE  hides an economic tsunami. With the democratization of broadband, smartphones and geolocation, the crafty launch across new platforms online, usually applications that connect freelance workers and their clients without passing through conventional intermediate. These captains of industry of croqueurs generally remunerate the commission.

    Their models? Airbnb, the hotel became the world without hotels landlord (1.5 million rooms), and, of course, Uber, the application that changed the ultrareglemente taxi industry without wages to any driver and that investors now value as much as General Motors 51 billion. Many startups who dream to do as well! “In a third of investment requests I receive, the business model is based on the uberisation” says the serial investor Marc Simoncini, former creator of Meetic dating site.

    Transport, logistics, tourism, personal services, restaurants, bank and even the sex industry . This new form of activity is gaining ground like wildfire in almost all sectors. According to experts of Deloitte, who call the “economy on demand”, she should weigh 100 billion within three years. Certainly, his way is not drawn in advance, for the old economy did everything to defend against the invader. Uber and its drivers, for example, compete for months on every continent of stone throwing, strikes and lawsuits from California to France. But these rearguard skirmishes will only slow the movement irretrievably committed. “Soon, all intermediate worthless will be swept away,” says Stanislas de Bentzmann, president of Croissance Plus. Should we complain or rejoice?

    It all depends on which side one takes! From the perspective of the consumer, the uberisation is undoubtedly a boon. First, because the technology it sets in motion improves services. With the rating system and assessments in place on most platforms, for example, evaluation of the services is permanent, and this virtuous system sufficient to exclude immediately the bad.

    You were planning to rent out on Drivy wreck sleeping in your garage? You’d better give up! At the French leader in car rentals between individuals, all vehicles are systematically rated on a scale of one to five stars. And their owners valued the heading comment. “GDS available, accommodating, responsive . I highly recommend it,” says Julie, for example, about Gaël C, the individual who rented him a Renault Master van in Saint-Maur-des-Fosses (94). On the site of Drivy, design more intuitive than those of Avis or Hertz, even the average response time is listed lessor. Woe to those who place more than three hours to remind customers .

    BENEFIT TWO: THE PRICE.  “Our members pay an average of 6 cents per kilometer”, says Frederic Mazzella, the CEO of BlaBlaCar the European carpooling leader. Unbeatable! True, the prices of apps are not always more competitive than those charged by traditional players, but they have the merit of being almost always fixed in advance, limiting surprises.

    Done scam plumber who, under the pretext of calling urgently for a water leak case without taking the time to request a quote, the opportunity to rob your wallet! On Hellocasa, a 100% tricolor application that puts customers directly and professional network, all services – plumbing, painting, electrical, DIY, gardening – are set in advance and pass (from 69 euros per trip in Paris, a quarter of that amount due to the start-up). Same principle at Popmyday, a startup founded by two former HEC, offering home care (haircuts, manicures, makeup, etc.) seven days a week, from 7 am to 22 hours.

    Consumers also enjoy the benefits of geolocation, present on many of the applications. Without it, Deliveroo would never have been possible. This British nugget has established a network of 1,200 independent couriers (self-employed entrepreneurs, students, unemployed) to offer restaurants that do not have a delivery service to serve their customers home in their place. With a single glance at his smartphone, the hungry city can know in real time the location of the delivery and the distance that remains to be done. For its part, the restaurant, which has access to the same data, can monitor the command has arrived to before it cools. Same with Uber, Lecab or Driver-deprived: the hurried traveler is presented with real-time the location of the nearest saloon and the time it will take to pick him, without paying a penny more.

    Ultimate consumer benefit: the invasion of the barbarians on their territory strength traditional players to move. “To maintain their market share, they must absolutely be put at the startup that uberisent them,” says Jean-Marc Liduena, partner strategy and innovation at Deloitte monitor. Thus, the most affected sectors, such as hotels, make efforts on prices and some taxi drivers are beginning to offer water bottles to their customers. And the National Union of taxis is now lapping at the moment in the streets of Bordeaux an application on the model of Uber.

    FOR SOME EMPLOYEES IN POST,  by against the uberisation is very bad news. She rushes we indeed towards a world without CDI, where the Labor Code could become very quickly a scrap of paper. “Historically, the organization of vast scale production had always assumed the establishment of a business, gold is no longer necessary, “observes economist Jean Pisani-Ferry.

    Certainly the incredible flexibility of the new system will offer many opportunities for the unemployed and precarious languishing on the wrong side of the line. “Eventually, and if all goes ideally, technological change could allow everyone to become his own boss and work when and where it chooses. Marx’s dream after all! “Says the president of the liberal think tank GenerationLibre Gaspard Koenig. “Today, a mother who wants to work only when children are asleep can do it very easily,” adds the CEO of Crowd Factory, Daniel Benoilid. In a sense, this is good news because it will enable to blast the red line fracture in decades our labor market. The problem is that this social revolution is going to pay a high price for the millions of workers on the job.

    THERE WILL NOT BY FOUR PATHS:  currently, uberisation synonymous with insecurity. Not only new employees “independent” enjoy no guarantee, but they are often paid slingshot. It must be said that many of the tasks proposed by the apps are very lucrative.

    On the Amazon Mechanical Turk, for example, a platform that allows companies to delegate administrative tasks to users of crowds, the price is freely determined by the principal. This drives prices down. It must be said that the start-up self-imposed limitation of salaries (often 33,000 euros a year, the ceiling of the autoentreprenariat) for fear of their “employees” reclassified as employees. We should add that almost all of these shoots is not profitable: Airbnb is expected to lose $ 150 million this year and Uber three times. In bankruptcy, thousands of people will see their income melt!

    But there are more serious: the economy at the request could destroy many more jobs than it will not create. “Until now, innovation cycles had always helped offset the jobs destroyed. But this time the situation will change, “predicts Bruno Teboul, scientific director at Keyrus and coauthor of” Uberisation = torn Economy? “(Editions Kawa).

    Take the example of the bank. If the French lend money directly to each other through crowdfunding platforms (such Kisskissbankbank or LendingClub) and regulate all current operations (transfers, etc.) for dedicated applications, what the devil will serve them well tellers?

    The middle class will be the first to suffer from the situation. “In the US, the polarization of the world of work has already started and it’s disturbing,” alert Jean Pisani-Ferry. On one side US companies are struggling to attract the rarest profiles, on the other they outsource mass maximum tasks. So, there, one in three trim already freelance. “Most prefer to occupy well-paid and secure jobs,” recently lamented the former Labor Secretary Clinton, Robert Reich, for whom the appearance of these new jobs is a “nightmare”. No wonder across the Atlantic the uberisation be presented as a beacon on the upcoming presidential election.

    It is not still here with us. For now, our companies are rather . watch the trains. In a system where the first takes all ( “winner takes all”), the dominant platforms, often American, are rain or shine. Certainly we have a nice nugget: BlaBlaCar the carpool champion who lifted smoothly EUR 73 million last year to support its international expansion. “But this is an isolated case and, for the rest, we are still far away billions that collect startups Anglo-Saxon” observes Bruno Teboul.

    The explanation for this delay? Our heavy taxation, which cools the business hexagonal Angels, of course, the language barrier (most often, apps are first launched in French, which does not make things easier) and the difficulties of our engineers to communicate their ideas and to popularize.

    The funniest thing is that the solution may come from our good old traditional groups. Faced with the onslaught of startups, some have indeed chosen to throw into battle without fear of cannibalizing their business. To return the young hackers used to rent equipment from other sites like Zilok, Mr. Bricolage has launched its own case for example of tool lending between individuals, Even SNCF uberise! Since she offered 75% stake in the private car rental Ouicar (number 2 in France behind Drivy, with 400,000 members), all guests can take advantage of car sharing. Beware, Yankees, we come!

    – Taxis: In Paris, Uber has dynamited the market

    Within months, Uber, or Lecab Heetch were old-hat taxis of the Business School Admission. They operate more than 10,000 vehicles.

    Gain for the consumer: Smiling water bottle, impeccable car price known in advance, less waiting, geolocation vehicle that picks you up . The new services have advantages. The price, it may be lower or higher, depending on demand.

    Social consequences:  As Uber has no plate to pay for its vehicles, occupation denounces unfair competition. The Uberpop Service (anyone can improvise driver with own car) has, meanwhile, been banned.

    – Sex: Always the peep show . but home!

    Done dubious clubs where you enter hugging the walls. Now, striptease fans can see live shows offered by pros or madams All-the-World on their screen via specialist websites.

    Gain for the consumer:  more comfortable, cleaner, quieter, the system has two flaws. Online strippers do not appear in the flesh. And at 4 euros per minute, the score can rise very quickly.

    Social consequences: Student or not shy household can earn 250 euros per hour. But the sites often conceal plants call girls in Eastern Europe, where girls are exploited shabbily.

    – Credits: No need for bank to borrow

    New platforms, such Unilend or Ready Dunion, put in special relationship or SMEs who want to borrow with those who can pay.

    Gain for the consumer:  Everyone wins. Lenders often pocketing best interests to market. Borrowers themselves, are funded more quickly and easily, without having to provide many guarantees. Crowdfunding mechanisms (grants) can also take over when banks refuse projects.

    Social consequences: All the traditional banking activities are questioned. Eventually, thousands of jobs could be threatened.

    – Delivery: Anyone can improvise steeds

    A meal to be delivered? A package to file? With Deliveroo Toktoktok or more need professional couriers. These are individuals who do the work.

    Gain for the consumer:  More flexibility, more rapid (32 minutes on average for Deliveroo), a smaller bill and the ability to track their parcel GPS: These new apps are any benefits for the customer. And as the carriers are noted, they work well!

    Social consequences: This service will enable thousands of students, unemployed or precarious to earn up to 25 euros per hour. By cons, it may weaken hundreds of courier companies.

    – Creative Tasks: Soon the end of the advertising agencies?

    Slogan to find, logo drawing . In recent months, the sites put human order of donors with a network of thousands of independent creative. The offer is open to everyone, everyone is free to respond.

    Gain for the outsourcer: No more heavy and opaque billing agencies! With this system, benefits can cost a hundred times cheaper. Societe Generale has thus offered a new credit card name . 400 euros!

    Social consequences: Advertising Agencies and com going to leave feathers. The creative also because only the winner of the tender is paid. The others work for nothing.

    – rental or lending of objects: Between individuals, it’s cheaper!

    Many sites like Zylok, Ilokyou or Lamachineduvoisin offer individuals to rent (or lend) their tools, their equipment and household appliances. They are increasingly popular.

    Gain for the consumer:  The system is more flexible and significantly less expensive than traditional rental companies. But beware of scams, frequent these sites. The rating system and comments, which can rule dishonest users, should contribute to the household.

    Social consequences: In time, equipment rental companies could cut thousands of jobs.

    – Administrative tasks: Small hands free at all times

    Ranking files, SEO, screening opinion ironic . These very low-skilled microtasks but impossible with software, will be increasingly outsourced. Sites like Crowd Factory offer to entrust them to thousands of volunteer individuals. Just that they have a screen.

    Gain for the outsourcer:  More flexibility and substantial savings.

    Social consequences: The system allows thousands of people in need to supplement their income easily (up to 3,000 euros per month). But it goes a little more precarious unskilled workers.

    And other areas are also affected: 

    Video Content  By allowing everyone to share and monetize their videos, YouTube was the first paved the way for the uberisation.

    Home Services  The apps Hellocasa or Popmyday offer home staff for almost all tasks (plumbing, hairdressing, etc.).

    Law  The legal advice startups popping up on the web and offer quick fixes.

    Clothing  Several sites offer to individuals to exchange clothes.

    Tourism  The Airbnb, HomeAway, HomeExchange dynamite and other hospitality already.

    Food  It is possible to sell part of the dinner we cooked at home, through, among others, the Super-pot site.

    The biscuits are Lenôtre oven

    The biscuits are Lenôtre oven

    Austerity forces, companies carve in their reception budgets. This does not suit the famous caterer, forced to find new revenue management.

    What strategy will it follow the direction to boost sales?

    Scenario  1: Yielding shops to refocus solely on receptions.

    Scenario 2: Engage in social and outsource part of the production.

    Scenario 3: Keep all activities with their numbers, but rationalize.

    Lenôtre chose Scenario 3.

    This is not invented. Lenôtre workshops are installed . Plaisir, near Paris. And from 6 am, the commotion of battle. 350 cooks are activated. In the basement, dozens of little hands peel fresh vegetables, cut pieces of meat . Upstairs, thirty load chocolates, forty deal with desserts and macaroons, as “the hive “assembles canapes.

    Always with a taste of sophistication: the ice cream is made with pear crops Potager du Roi (Versailles), almonds are caramelized in copper vats . “Our DNA is the quality guarantees proudly CEO, Laurent Le Fur. The house can become a war machine, but it requires very careful management, otherwise it is flu easily. “

    ITS OWNER,  the Sodexo Group, knows something: since the canteen has provided catering in 2011, savored! In terms of prestige, no complaints: stars brigade (Guy Krenzer, Michel Roth .) and VIP activities (shops in uptown, receptions in ministries) . everything is there!

    > You prefer the homemade? Find video courses to achieve your foie gras: (Click on the image to launch the video)

    But the financial side, it is not at the party: in three years, the caterer has accumulated over 15 million euros in losses, for a turnover of 103 million euros in 2014. “This year, for the first time, the company will make money, “says the daughter of the founder of Sodexo Nathalie Szabo-Bellon, Sodexo CEO of Sports and Recreation. For 2015, management announced a turnover of 104 million euros and an operating profit ironed in the green. However, an undeniable best, insufficient: the shareholder had to put the hand in the pocket and reBusiness School Admissionize its subsidiary.

    Lenôtre, yet it is a great story. That of a Norman pastry chef, Gaston came to try his luck in Paris in 1957. He opened a shop rue d’Auteuil, quickly successful meeting, then opens a reception activity, opening stores abroad . the development is bold. A little too much: the mid-1980s already, Gaston should call the Accor Group to the rescue. “We launched a savings plan, streamlined the organization and reignited the trade agreement until the World Cup 1998!” Says one elder.

    In the 2000s, Lenôtre begins to invest, buying back Fauchon shops, multiplying international partnerships . The history repeat itself? “When we bought the company Accor in 2011, she was in a difficult situation, highly leveraged,” says Nathalie Bellon-Szabo. Clash of cultures undoubtedly, the group is in any case time to take things in hand. “We do not want to be brutal, shows the shareholder. The priority was to preserve the talent, now we apply our management skills. “

    First project: the receiving business, a segment weakened since 2008. Private and public institutions, all reduced their mouth fresh. Consider this: for his cocktail of July 14, the city of Paris is negotiating free champagne and petit fours against a highlighting of the supplier!

    In addition, competition has hardened. Last year, home Fauchon and Lenôtre blown his contract covered 7,000 at Roland Garros. “Yet it was the first time she took part in our consultations,” says Bastien Laurichesse, the French Tennis Federation. “The Paris market becoming very competitive, we seek to organize more events abroad,” said Laurent Le Fur. Especially, Sodexo and Lenôtre join forces to multiply the catering contracts in stages: the canteen, meals to the public; the caterer, the service reserved for personalities.

    OTHER BLACK POINT  recent years: the shops. “The customer declined by 5% per year,” admits Laurent Le Fur.

    First, the offer was so abundant that it became confused: appetizers, cold dishes, pastries, cakes . all offered whatever the size of stores, or 90 300 square meters. “We clarified the board, with 30% less revenue, and adapted assortments to spaces and neighborhoods,” continues the CEO.

    Then, some prices were a little difficult to digest in times of austerity. Count 70 euros Autumn Leaf Cake star of the house, eight or nine people. No way to plane labels, but the house is now developing smaller, more affordable products, like a bag of pretzels chocolate to 6.50 euros, cleverly installed near the cash register. Result? Two of the fifteen shops remain threatened, but attendance is generally ironed in the green.

    The log Hermes 130 euros

    Last strategic issue: to sort through the myriad of more secondary activities. The management would boost profitable business, such as licenses with industry – the cook develops products for Labeyrie Bridor (Groupe Le Duff) and Barry Callebaut – or training school. It already hosts 3,000 professionals annually.

    Conversely, Sodexo is considering settle less promising activities, such as delivery of meal trays or catalogs of corporate gifts. “Nothing is settled, said Nathalie Bellon-Szabo. But the momentum is there. “So .

    A slight improvement after 3 years of losses:

    2012  : € 5.5 million loss

    in 2013  : 6.8 million euros of losses

    in 2014  : € 3.3 million loss

    in 2015  : 1.8 million euros in profits