How far the company uberisation she going to go?
Better services for a lower price . It’s hard to believe but the recent decline in prices VTC service Uber, in response to new commercial offers Parisian taxi companies Taxis G7 and blue looking to regain lost customers, is an example among others of the ongoing revolution that crosses our economy, shaken by the Internet. The revolution of apps seem a boon to consumers. But it is likely to increase unemployment and job insecurity. This is what we should expect .
See its Paris headquarters, a simple apartment of 200 square meters perched above a scooter dealer in the Sentier district, Creads we imagine that evil can shake the emperors of advertising. “In France, Publicis and Havas share the cake for too long. We must shake up! “, Yet swagger Julien Mechin, co-founder of the start-up of 40 employees. The secret of this 2.0 Robespierre to decapitate the multinationals? When agencies pay thousands of creative, it does not pay any. He simply created a network of 50,000 independent workers, advertisers (Citroën, La Poste .) can create competition in a few clicks and cost. “Only the ten best projects are paid and we keep half the profits,” said the boss. Last spring, 175 members of the community have been working on the name of a credit card to Societe Generale. First prize for the winner? 200 euros. A good example of uberisation.
UBERISATION? This neologism FASHIONABLE hides an economic tsunami. With the democratization of broadband, smartphones and geolocation, the crafty launch across new platforms online, usually applications that connect freelance workers and their clients without passing through conventional intermediate. These captains of industry of croqueurs generally remunerate the commission.
Their models? Airbnb, the hotel became the world without hotels landlord (1.5 million rooms), and, of course, Uber, the application that changed the ultrareglemente taxi industry without wages to any driver and that investors now value as much as General Motors 51 billion. Many startups who dream to do as well! “In a third of investment requests I receive, the business model is based on the uberisation” says the serial investor Marc Simoncini, former creator of Meetic dating site.
Transport, logistics, tourism, personal services, restaurants, bank and even the sex industry . This new form of activity is gaining ground like wildfire in almost all sectors. According to experts of Deloitte, who call the “economy on demand”, she should weigh 100 billion within three years. Certainly, his way is not drawn in advance, for the old economy did everything to defend against the invader. Uber and its drivers, for example, compete for months on every continent of stone throwing, strikes and lawsuits from California to France. But these rearguard skirmishes will only slow the movement irretrievably committed. “Soon, all intermediate worthless will be swept away,” says Stanislas de Bentzmann, president of Croissance Plus. Should we complain or rejoice?
It all depends on which side one takes! From the perspective of the consumer, the uberisation is undoubtedly a boon. First, because the technology it sets in motion improves services. With the rating system and assessments in place on most platforms, for example, evaluation of the services is permanent, and this virtuous system sufficient to exclude immediately the bad.
You were planning to rent out on Drivy wreck sleeping in your garage? You’d better give up! At the French leader in car rentals between individuals, all vehicles are systematically rated on a scale of one to five stars. And their owners valued the heading comment. “GDS available, accommodating, responsive . I highly recommend it,” says Julie, for example, about Gaël C, the individual who rented him a Renault Master van in Saint-Maur-des-Fosses (94). On the site of Drivy, design more intuitive than those of Avis or Hertz, even the average response time is listed lessor. Woe to those who place more than three hours to remind customers .
BENEFIT TWO: THE PRICE. “Our members pay an average of 6 cents per kilometer”, says Frederic Mazzella, the CEO of BlaBlaCar the European carpooling leader. Unbeatable! True, the prices of apps are not always more competitive than those charged by traditional players, but they have the merit of being almost always fixed in advance, limiting surprises.
Done scam plumber who, under the pretext of calling urgently for a water leak case without taking the time to request a quote, the opportunity to rob your wallet! On Hellocasa, a 100% tricolor application that puts customers directly and professional network, all services – plumbing, painting, electrical, DIY, gardening – are set in advance and pass (from 69 euros per trip in Paris, a quarter of that amount due to the start-up). Same principle at Popmyday, a startup founded by two former HEC, offering home care (haircuts, manicures, makeup, etc.) seven days a week, from 7 am to 22 hours.
Consumers also enjoy the benefits of geolocation, present on many of the applications. Without it, Deliveroo would never have been possible. This British nugget has established a network of 1,200 independent couriers (self-employed entrepreneurs, students, unemployed) to offer restaurants that do not have a delivery service to serve their customers home in their place. With a single glance at his smartphone, the hungry city can know in real time the location of the delivery and the distance that remains to be done. For its part, the restaurant, which has access to the same data, can monitor the command has arrived to before it cools. Same with Uber, Lecab or Driver-deprived: the hurried traveler is presented with real-time the location of the nearest saloon and the time it will take to pick him, without paying a penny more.
Ultimate consumer benefit: the invasion of the barbarians on their territory strength traditional players to move. “To maintain their market share, they must absolutely be put at the startup that uberisent them,” says Jean-Marc Liduena, partner strategy and innovation at Deloitte monitor. Thus, the most affected sectors, such as hotels, make efforts on prices and some taxi drivers are beginning to offer water bottles to their customers. And the National Union of taxis is now lapping at the moment in the streets of Bordeaux an application on the model of Uber.
FOR SOME EMPLOYEES IN POST, by against the uberisation is very bad news. She rushes we indeed towards a world without CDI, where the Labor Code could become very quickly a scrap of paper. “Historically, the organization of vast scale production had always assumed the establishment of a business, gold is no longer necessary, “observes economist Jean Pisani-Ferry.
Certainly the incredible flexibility of the new system will offer many opportunities for the unemployed and precarious languishing on the wrong side of the line. “Eventually, and if all goes ideally, technological change could allow everyone to become his own boss and work when and where it chooses. Marx’s dream after all! “Says the president of the liberal think tank GenerationLibre Gaspard Koenig. “Today, a mother who wants to work only when children are asleep can do it very easily,” adds the CEO of Crowd Factory, Daniel Benoilid. In a sense, this is good news because it will enable to blast the red line fracture in decades our labor market. The problem is that this social revolution is going to pay a high price for the millions of workers on the job.
THERE WILL NOT BY FOUR PATHS: currently, uberisation synonymous with insecurity. Not only new employees “independent” enjoy no guarantee, but they are often paid slingshot. It must be said that many of the tasks proposed by the apps are very lucrative.
On the Amazon Mechanical Turk, for example, a platform that allows companies to delegate administrative tasks to users of crowds, the price is freely determined by the principal. This drives prices down. It must be said that the start-up self-imposed limitation of salaries (often 33,000 euros a year, the ceiling of the autoentreprenariat) for fear of their “employees” reclassified as employees. We should add that almost all of these shoots is not profitable: Airbnb is expected to lose $ 150 million this year and Uber three times. In bankruptcy, thousands of people will see their income melt!
But there are more serious: the economy at the request could destroy many more jobs than it will not create. “Until now, innovation cycles had always helped offset the jobs destroyed. But this time the situation will change, “predicts Bruno Teboul, scientific director at Keyrus and coauthor of” Uberisation = torn Economy? “(Editions Kawa).
Take the example of the bank. If the French lend money directly to each other through crowdfunding platforms (such Kisskissbankbank or LendingClub) and regulate all current operations (transfers, etc.) for dedicated applications, what the devil will serve them well tellers?
The middle class will be the first to suffer from the situation. “In the US, the polarization of the world of work has already started and it’s disturbing,” alert Jean Pisani-Ferry. On one side US companies are struggling to attract the rarest profiles, on the other they outsource mass maximum tasks. So, there, one in three trim already freelance. “Most prefer to occupy well-paid and secure jobs,” recently lamented the former Labor Secretary Clinton, Robert Reich, for whom the appearance of these new jobs is a “nightmare”. No wonder across the Atlantic the uberisation be presented as a beacon on the upcoming presidential election.
It is not still here with us. For now, our companies are rather . watch the trains. In a system where the first takes all ( “winner takes all”), the dominant platforms, often American, are rain or shine. Certainly we have a nice nugget: BlaBlaCar the carpool champion who lifted smoothly EUR 73 million last year to support its international expansion. “But this is an isolated case and, for the rest, we are still far away billions that collect startups Anglo-Saxon” observes Bruno Teboul.
The explanation for this delay? Our heavy taxation, which cools the business hexagonal Angels, of course, the language barrier (most often, apps are first launched in French, which does not make things easier) and the difficulties of our engineers to communicate their ideas and to popularize.
The funniest thing is that the solution may come from our good old traditional groups. Faced with the onslaught of startups, some have indeed chosen to throw into battle without fear of cannibalizing their business. To return the young hackers used to rent equipment from other sites like Zilok, Mr. Bricolage has launched its own case for example of tool lending between individuals, Ladepanne.fr. Even SNCF uberise! Since she offered 75% stake in the private car rental Ouicar (number 2 in France behind Drivy, with 400,000 members), all guests can take advantage of car sharing. Beware, Yankees, we come!
– Taxis: In Paris, Uber has dynamited the market
Within months, Uber, or Lecab Heetch were old-hat taxis of the Business School Admission. They operate more than 10,000 vehicles.
Gain for the consumer: Smiling water bottle, impeccable car price known in advance, less waiting, geolocation vehicle that picks you up . The new services have advantages. The price, it may be lower or higher, depending on demand.
Social consequences: As Uber has no plate to pay for its vehicles, occupation denounces unfair competition. The Uberpop Service (anyone can improvise driver with own car) has, meanwhile, been banned.
– Sex: Always the peep show . but home!
Done dubious clubs where you enter hugging the walls. Now, striptease fans can see live shows offered by pros or madams All-the-World on their screen via specialist websites.
Gain for the consumer: more comfortable, cleaner, quieter, the system has two flaws. Online strippers do not appear in the flesh. And at 4 euros per minute, the score can rise very quickly.
Social consequences: Student or not shy household can earn 250 euros per hour. But the sites often conceal plants call girls in Eastern Europe, where girls are exploited shabbily.
– Credits: No need for bank to borrow
New platforms, such Unilend or Ready Dunion, put in special relationship or SMEs who want to borrow with those who can pay.
Gain for the consumer: Everyone wins. Lenders often pocketing best interests to market. Borrowers themselves, are funded more quickly and easily, without having to provide many guarantees. Crowdfunding mechanisms (grants) can also take over when banks refuse projects.
Social consequences: All the traditional banking activities are questioned. Eventually, thousands of jobs could be threatened.
– Delivery: Anyone can improvise steeds
A meal to be delivered? A package to file? With Deliveroo Toktoktok or more need professional couriers. These are individuals who do the work.
Gain for the consumer: More flexibility, more rapid (32 minutes on average for Deliveroo), a smaller bill and the ability to track their parcel GPS: These new apps are any benefits for the customer. And as the carriers are noted, they work well!
Social consequences: This service will enable thousands of students, unemployed or precarious to earn up to 25 euros per hour. By cons, it may weaken hundreds of courier companies.
– Creative Tasks: Soon the end of the advertising agencies?
Slogan to find, logo drawing . In recent months, the sites put human order of donors with a network of thousands of independent creative. The offer is open to everyone, everyone is free to respond.
Gain for the outsourcer: No more heavy and opaque billing agencies! With this system, benefits can cost a hundred times cheaper. Societe Generale has thus offered a new credit card name . 400 euros!
Social consequences: Advertising Agencies and com going to leave feathers. The creative also because only the winner of the tender is paid. The others work for nothing.
– rental or lending of objects: Between individuals, it’s cheaper!
Many sites like Zylok, Ilokyou or Lamachineduvoisin offer individuals to rent (or lend) their tools, their equipment and household appliances. They are increasingly popular.
Gain for the consumer: The system is more flexible and significantly less expensive than traditional rental companies. But beware of scams, frequent these sites. The rating system and comments, which can rule dishonest users, should contribute to the household.
Social consequences: In time, equipment rental companies could cut thousands of jobs.
– Administrative tasks: Small hands free at all times
Ranking files, SEO, screening opinion ironic . These very low-skilled microtasks but impossible with software, will be increasingly outsourced. Sites like Crowd Factory offer to entrust them to thousands of volunteer individuals. Just that they have a screen.
Gain for the outsourcer: More flexibility and substantial savings.
Social consequences: The system allows thousands of people in need to supplement their income easily (up to 3,000 euros per month). But it goes a little more precarious unskilled workers.
And other areas are also affected:
Video Content By allowing everyone to share and monetize their videos, YouTube was the first paved the way for the uberisation.
Home Services The apps Hellocasa or Popmyday offer home staff for almost all tasks (plumbing, hairdressing, etc.).
Law The legal advice startups popping up on the web and offer quick fixes.
Clothing Several sites offer to individuals to exchange clothes.
Tourism The Airbnb, HomeAway, HomeExchange dynamite and other hospitality already.
Food It is possible to sell part of the dinner we cooked at home, through, among others, the Super-pot site.